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Full text of "Wildlife Burton"

THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

A COMPILATION 



Published with the Financial Assistance 



of 



His Highness 

Sir Sri JAYACHAMARAJA WADIYAR BAHADUR, g.c.e 

•— — *■ 

MAHARAJA OF MYSORE 



37902 




lARi 



THE PRESERVATION 
OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

A COMPILATION 
WITH A SUMMARISED INDEX OF CONTENTS 



BY 

Lieut.-Colonel R. W. BURTON 

(Indian Army, Retired) 

A Member of the Advisory Committee of the 

Bombay Natural History Society 



WITH A FOREWORD 



BY 



Shri G. S. BAJPAI 

(Governor of Bombay) 
President of the Bombay Natural History Society 



BANGALORE city 

PRINTED AT THE BANGALORE PRESS, MYSORE ROAD 

1953 



FOREWORD 

I am writing these lines on the preservation of wild life in India 
with much diffidence. I regret to say that I have little knowledge of 
the subject and, although for many years I was associated with the 
administration of forests in India, left practical interest in our varied 
and magnificent fauna to a few enthusiasts in the old Indian Forest 
Service. 

As I am typical of the great majority of our countrymen in this 
respect, it seems appropriate that I should appeal to them, in contri- 
tion for our common ignorance, to replace it by understanding and 
activcsympathy. The common notion that the animal world, specially 
the untamed part of it, is either a nuisance or a menace, is, like all 
prejudices, exaggerated or unfounded. Man has to protect himself 
and the fruits of his labour against the ravages of beasts and birds 
but not at the price of their wholesale destruction. Natural beauty 
is comprehensive and has to be preserved in all its aspects, though 
what is harmful to mankind should be controlled in the measure 
necessary" to prevent harm. We are proud of our mountains and 
rivers, of our forests in their glory of flowers and foliage. What 
emptiness would afflict them if the sight and sound of fauna were 
to disappear from them, if the movement and colour of animal life 
with which Nature once filled them were completely to vanish! In all 
great literature, including our own, man's imagination has sought not 
only to evoke beauty but to garner wisdom from the animal world 
in its sylvan setting: the Hitopadesha is a rich treasure-house of such 
tales. Science has drawn, and continues to draw, knowledge from the 
same source. We owe it to our love of beauty and to our love of 
knowledge; we owe it -to our deep love and reverence for all forms 
of life, to prevent the senseless destruction of what is still left of our 
fauna and to preserve them in their natural surroundings as part of 
our national heritage. 

The Government of India have set up a Central Board for Wild 
Life. The book to which this is a foreword brings together, in 
convenient compass, the relevant literature on the subject. Rightly 
it emphasises an aNvakening of interest in, and a sense of responsibility 
for, the preservation of wild life. It is for the public to respond 
if greed and fear and sheer thoughtlessness are not to destroy what 
is left of a precious and dwindling heritage. 

"Raj Bhavan", Bombay 6, G. S. Bajpai, 

March 14, 1953. Governor of Bombay. 



INTRODUCTION 

The occasion of this volume is the constitution by the Government 
of India of a Central Board for the control and conservation of Wild 
Life. The purpose is to assist the cause through endeavour to place 
in readily accessible form before all the Committees that will be formed 
in the States and Unions the principal contents of the various important 
articles which have been from time to time contributed to the Journal 
of the Bombay Natural History Society. There are also important 
editorials and other papers which greatly add to right knowledge and 
understanding of the many and varied aspects of this complex question. 
All are dealt with in the Summarised Index. 

It is laid down that one of the functions of the Central Board, 
and therefore of other Boards and Committees also, is to promote 
public interest in wild life. All through the literature is stated the need 
for existence of a sound public opinion. It is almost a truism to say 
that without real interest and the support of public opinion in this 
matter no efforts of governments can have lasting effect. 

The question of Funds will be a foremost consideration, so Com- 
mittees will no doubt very seriously consider the need for establish- 
ment of a Wild Life Fund. If that practicable solution is not accepted — 
and the obstacle to it may be reluctance of governments to surrender 
from general revenues those items which directly derive from the exist- 
ence of wild life — then adequate grants would have (o be made by 
governments, that is if they are serious in intention to do what is possible 
for the conservation and protection of wild life in India. 

The Address given by Mr. Prater at the Jubilee Meeting of the 
Bombay Society covers most of the field: and the contributions to the 
Journal to which it is an Introduction are given in full as of value to 
some of the principal States in affording expert knowledge of the factors 
and conditions which obtained in a large part of the country twenty! 
years ago. 

" The price to pay for the neglect of the observation of conservation 
principles as applied to wild life is a terrible one — no less than the dis- 
appearance for ever of species after species." — (Hubback). 



MINISTRY OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 

RESOLUTION 

Agriculture 

New Delhi, the 4th April 1952 

Constitution of a Central Board for Wild Life 

No. 7-110J51-R. — The problems of protection, conservation and 
control of wild life have engaged the attention of the Government of 
India for some time. India's heritage of wild life is fast becoming 
a vanishing asset and some of our notable animals such as lion, 
rhinoceros, tragopan, cheetah, are on the verge of extinction. With 
a view to preserve the fauna of India and to prevent the extinction 
of any species and their protection in balance with natural and human 
environment, Government of India are pleased to constitute and 
appoint a Central Board for Wild Life. 

2. The Board will function under the administrative control of 
the Ministry of Food and Agriculture. 

3. The functions of the Board shall be : — 

(i) to devise ways and means of conservation and control 
of wild life through co-ordinated legislative and practical 
measures with particular reference to seasonal and 
regional closures and declaration of certain species of 
animals as protected animals and prevention of indis- 
criminate killing; 

(ii) to sponsor the setting up of national parks, sanctuaries 
and zoological gardens; 

(iii) to promote public interest in wild life and the need for 
its preservation in harmony with natural and human 
environment ; 

(iv) to advise Government on policy in respect of export of 
living animals, trophies, skins, furs, feathers and other 
wild life products; 

(v) to prevent cruelty to birds and beasts caught alive with 
or without injury; 

(vi) to perform such other functions as are germane to the 
purpose for which the Board has been constituted, i 

4. The Board shall meet at least once in two years. 

5. The Board may appoint technical sub-committees to consider 
specific problems. 

6. The Board may frame by-laws for the conduct of its business. 

7. Government are pleased to constitute the first Board as under: 

Chairman 

Major-General His Highness Maharaja Sir Sri Jaya Chama- 
rajendra Wadiyar Bahadur, g.c.b., g.c.s.l, ll.d., Maharaja 
of Mysore, Rajpramukh of Mysore. 



Vice-Chairmen 

Shri K. S. Dharma Kumarsinhji of Bhavnagar. 
Inspector-General of Forests. 

Members 
A representative each of: — 

The Geological Survey of India, 

The Zoological Survey of India, 

The Botanical Survey of India, 

Bombay Natural History Society, 

Bengal Natural History Society, 

National Institute of Sciences, 

Ministry of Natural Resources and Scientific Research, 

Ministry of Transport, 

State Forest Department, 

Zoological Gardens, 

Fisheries Development Adviser. 

Secretary 
An Officer of the Ministry of Food and Agriculture. 

Vishnu Sahay, 
Secretary. 



Ordered that the Resolution be published in the Gazette of India. 

Ordered also that a copy (with usual spare copies) be forwarded 
to all Ministries of the Government of India, all Members of the Centra! 
Board for Wild Life, all State Governments (Parts A to D), all attached 
and subordinate officers under the Ministry of Food and Agriculture, 
Planning Commission, Cabinet Secretariat, Prime Minister's Secretariat 
and the President's Secretariat. 

By Order, 

S. D. Udhravn, 
Under-Secretary. 



CONTENTS 

Pages 
forword . . . . . . . . v 

Introduction . . . . . . . . vii 

1 . Preface and Extracts, 3 (a) to 3 (./ ) . . . . 1-5 
Guide to Paragraphs of the Summarised Index . . 6 

2. The Summarised Index (c to tf abridged — others in full) 

(For Genesis of this Volume, see Ref. 80 of 4 B) . . 7-34 

3. The Wild Animals of India and the Problem of 

Their Conservation . . . . . . . . 35-89 

(a) Introductional Survey of the Indian Empire and the 

Problem 
By S. H. Prater, O.B.E., C.M.Z.S., Curator, 
Bombay Natural History Society . . . . 35 

(b) The Central Provinces (Madhya Pradesh) 

By A. A. Dunbar Brander, Late Conservator of 
Forests, Central Provinces [Vol. 36 (4) (1933)] 46 

(c) The Bombay Presidency (Bombay State) 

By G. Monteith, I.C.S. [Vol. 36 (4) (1933)] . . • 52 

(d) Assam 

By A. J. W. Milroy, Conservator of Forests, 
Assam [Vol. 37 (1) (1934)] 59 

(e) The United Provinces (Uttar Pradesh) 

By F. W. Champion, Deputy Conservator of 
Forests, United Provinces [Vol. 37 (1) (1934)] . . 63 

(/) The Madras Presidency (Madras State) 

By R. D. Richmond, I.F.S. (Retired) [Vol. 38 (2) 

(1935)] . . • 69 

(g) Comments on Mr, Richmond's Note 

By R. C. Morris, F.Z.S. [Vol. 38 (2) (1935) . . 73 

(/;) Mysore State 

By Major (Lt.-Col.) E, G. Phythian-Adams, O.B.E., 
F.Z.S. [Vol. 38 (2) (1935) .. .. .. 78 

(/) Hyderabad State 

By Sdlim A. All, M.B.O.U. [Vol. 38 (2) (1935)] 82 

4. Important Contributions to the "Journal of the 

Bombay Natural History Society" (A toE) and two 

others— All printed in full .. .. .. 90-152 

A. Principles of Wild Life Conservation 

By Theodore Hubback, F.Z.S. [Vol. 40: 100-111 
(1938)] 90 

B. Wild Life Preservation in India— India's Vanishing 

Asset 
By Lieut.-Col. R. W. Burton [Vol. 41: 602-622 
(1948)] 100 



Xll 



Page 



C. Preservation of Wild Life in India — Supplement to 

the above 
By Lieut.-Col. R. W. Burton, LA. {Retd.) [Vol. 48: 
290-299 (1949)] ■• •■ ..... 120 

D. Wild Life Preservation — Birds 

By Lieut.-Col. R. W. Burton, LA. {Vol. 47: 
778-780 (1948)] .. .. .. .. 129 

E. Preservation of Wild Life 

By M. D. Chaturvedi, B.Sc. {Oxon.), I.F.S., Chief 
Conservator of Forests, and now Inspector-General 
of Forests and Vice-Chairman of the Board of 
Control 

With Comment by Lieut.-Col. R. If. Burton, I. A. 
[Vol. 48: 588-591 (1949)] .. .. .. 131 

F. Nature Conservation, National Parks and Bio- 

Aesthetic Planning in India [An Address to the 
Section of Botany, 36th Indian Science Congress, 
Allahabad, 1949 (Abridged)] 
By M. S. Randhawa, I.C.S. y M.Sc, F.N.I., Deputy 
Commissioner, Ambala (E. Punjab) . . . . 1 35 

G. A Memorandum (42 paragraphs) dated 16th October 

1950 submitted by Lieut.-Col. R. W. Burton to 
the Sub-Committee to be assembled at New Delhi 
to examine and suggest ways and means for setting 
up National Parks and Sanctuaries in India . . 141 

5. Other References dealt with in the Summarised Index 

(a) Report by India to the International Union for the 

Protection of Nature (I.U.P.N.) on the General 
Situation in India. Printed in the publication, 
"The Position of Nature Protection Throughout 
the World in 1950" 

(b) Wild Life Reserves in India — Assam 

BvE. P. Gee. M.A., C.M.Z.S.., F.R.G.S. [Vol. 49: 
81-89 (1950) 

(c) Wild Life Reserves in India — Bihar 

By Jamal Ara [Vol. 48: 283-287 (1949)] 

(d) Wild Life Reserves in India — Uttar Pradesh 

By T. N. Srivastava, D.F.O., Dehra Dun Forest 
Division {Contributed by Lieut.-Col. R. W. 
Burton), "The Kansrau Sanctuary"' [Vol. 51 : 
No. 1 (1952)] 

(e) Game Sanctuaries in Burma (pre- 1942) 

By Lieut.-Col. R. W. Burton [Vol. 49: 729-737 
(1951)] 

(/) The Gir Forest and Its Lions — T 

By M. A. Wynter-Blyth, M.A. {Cantab.), F.R.E.S. 
With a Map [Vol. 48: 493-514 (1949)] 



xm 

Pages 

The Gir Forest and Its Lions — II 

By M. A. Wynter-Blyth, M.A. (Cantab.), F.R.E.S. 
and Kumar Shree Dharmakumarsinhji. With a 
Plate [Vol. 49: 456-470 (1950)] 

The Gir Forest and Its Lions — III 

By K. S. Dharmakumarsinhji and M. A. Wynter- 
' Blyth, M.A. (Cantab.), F.R.E.S. [Vol 49: 685-694 
(1951)] 

(g) Salt-licks — Their Vital Importance to the Conserva- 
tion of Wild Life in Malaya 
By Theodore Hubback, F.Z.S. [Vol. 42: 518-525 
(1941)] . 

(li) The Protection of World Resources — Wild Life and 
the Soil 
By Lieut.-Col R. W. Burton [Vol. 50: 371-379 
(1951)] 

(j) A History of Shikar in India 

By Lieut.-Col R. W. Burton (Wild Life Preserva- 
tion at pp. 860-864) [Vol. 50: 843-869 (1952)] 

(a) Proceedings and Papers of the International Technical 

Conference on the Protection of Nature, Lake Success, 
22-29 August 1949. (Published by I.U.P.N., Brussels. 
1950.) 

(b) Proceedings and Papers of the Technical Meeting at ■ 

The Hague, 20, 21 and 22 September 1951 (Published 
in 1952 by I.U.P.N.) 

Editorials: The Journal of the Bombay Natural 

History Society .. .. .. .. 153-157 

(i) Wild Life Preservation [Vol. 31: 803-804 (1926); 
1020-1021 (1927)] 

(ii) Game Preservation in India (Reprint in full) [Vol. 32 : 

359-365(1927)] .. .. .. .. 153 

(iii) Game Preservation — Growing Importance of Subject 
[Vol. 34: 605, 607-608 (1929)] 

(iv) Editorial Comments on the Inter-Provincial Con- 
ference convened at Delhi. January 1935 [Vol. 38: 
223 (1935)] 

(v) Conservation of Wild Life — Appendix to Honorary 

Secretary's Report, Januarv-July 1948 [Vol 47: , 

792 (1948)] 

(vi) Conservation of Wild Life — Appendix to Honorary 
Secretary's Report, January- July 1949 

Miscellaneous Contributed Articles to the Journal 
of the Bombay Natural History Society . . 158-159 

(a) Game Preservation in Nilgiris 

By Major (Lt.-Col.) E. G. Phythian- Adams, O.B.E., 
F.Z.S., [Vol. 32 : 339-343 and Vol. 33 : 947-951 
(1929)] 



XIV 



Pages 



(b) The Nilgiri Game Association, 1879-1939 

By Major (Lt.-Col.) E. G. Phythian- Adams, O.B.E., 
F.Z.S. [Vol. 41 : 384-396 (1939)] 

(c) Game Preservation 

A Letter from Col. C. H. Stockley. Published by 
the Editors [Vol. 32: 783 {1928)] 

(d) Close Seasons for Big Game— Are They Beneficial ? 

By R. C. Morris, F.Z.S. [Vol. 39: 621-622 (1927)] 

(<?) Jungle Memories 

By Major (Lt.-Col.) E. G. Phvthian- Adams, O.B.E., 
F.Z.S., LA. (Retd.) (' Conservation* at pp. 467-468 
—Reprinted in part) [Vol. 50 (1952)] . . 158 

( f) The Sportsmen's Club of Orissa [Vol. 49 : 595-596 
' - (1949)] 

Other Publications 

A. India: 

(i) The Punjab Wild Birds and Wild Animals 
Protection Act, 1933 (Punjab Act II of 1933) and 
Rules Notified Thereunder 

(ii) The United Provinces National Parks Act, 1935 

(iii) The Bombay National Parks Act, 1950 

(iv) The Bombay Wild Birds and Wild Animals 
Protection Act, 1951 

(v) The Book of Indian Animals 

By S. H. Prater, O.B.E., C.M.Z.S. (Pub- 
lished by the Bombay Natural History 
Society (1948). Price Rs. 16 — Non-Members] 

B. Ceylon: 

(i) The Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance, 
1938 — Revision with Amendment Act of 1949 

(ii) Annual Reports and Journals ('Loiis') of the 
Ceylon Game and Fauna Protection Society 

C. Africa : 

(i) The Kenya National Parks Ordinance, 1945, 
with Ordinance No. 30 of 1948, Government 
Press, Nairobi 

(ii) Fauna of British Eastern and Central Africa — 
Proceedings of a Conference held at Nairobi, 
8th and 9th May 1947, Government Press, 
Nairobi. Price 2-50 sh. 

(iii) Report of a Faunal Survey in Eastern and 
Central Africa, January to April 1947, by 
Captain Keith Caldwell. Published by the 
Society for the Preservation of the Fauna of 
the Empire, Regent's Park, London, Pi ice 
l\6d. 



XV 



Pages 



(iv) Royal National Parks of Kenya— Report for 
1946-1950, June 1951 with 2 Maps and 
Report for 1951, August 1952, Nairobi, 
Kenya, Post Box 2076. 

(v) Report of a Further Faunal Survey in East 
Africa by Captain Keith Caldwell. Published 
in S.P.F.E. Journal, Part LX1, March 1950, 
ah. 216 

(vi) Report on a Visit to East Africa, by Captain 
Keith Caldwell. Published in Orvx, Vol. 1, 
No. 4, December 1951, sli. 1/6 

PO, (v) a "d (vi) obtainable on application to 
Zoological Society of London, Regent's 
Park, N.W. 8] 

D. Wild Life Commission of Malaya— Report of the 
Wild Life Commission, Volume II. Recommend- 
ations (Out of print and not obtainable) 

Appendix A. Summary of Speeches Made at Mysore on 
the Occasion of the First Meeting of the 
Central Board for Wild Life from 25th 
November to 1st December 1952 .. 160-164 

Appendix B. Resolutions Adopted by the Central Board 
for Wild Life at Its First Session held in 
Mysore from the 25th November to the 
1st December 1952 .. 165-173 



PREFACE 

By way of preface to Mr. Prater's Introduction and the several contri- 
butions by experts to the "Wild Animals of India Series" published in 
the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society during 1933 to 1935, 
readers of this volume are firstly presented with some more or less 
paraphrased extracts from those writings as indicating a few of the 
many important questions which will form subjects for deliberation by 
the Boards and Committees about to assemble to devise ways and means 
of conservation and control of Wild Life in the Republic of India. 

The summarised Index which follows endeavours to deal in an 
informative way with all the many matters which will come up for 
discussion. 

3. (a) S. H. Prater {Introduction). — The purpose of the Wild 
Animals Series and the Introduction is to arouse interest in the 
fauna. of the country with a view to its protection and not its des- 
truction. The Society hoped that these articles would do something 
towards drawing the attention of people in India to the magnificent 
heritage which Nature has given them; and that it would help- them to 
realise the need for preserving this legacy to their own advantage and 
to the enjoyment of" generations to come, who, with (he spread of 
education, will be in a better position to appreciate its worth than we 
are to-day. 

The movement for the Protection of Nature had its origin barely 
fifty years ago. It is the European Nations and the American people 
who set an example to the World as to what could be done to preserve 
wild life within their lands. The cause of Conservation has been 
advanced by various International Conferences. A Central Bureau 
known as the International Office for the Protection of Nature 
(I.O.P.N.) was established, and in 1948 was constituted at Fomtaine- 
bleau. the International Union for the Protection of Nature (I. U.P.N.). 

It will be seen that in all civilised countries there is a general 
recognition of the need for concerted measures to stop the forces of 
destruction which threaten wild life in all parts of the world. There 
is in India too the gravest need for such concerted action. In its 
fauna and flora Nature has endowed India with a magnificent asset. 
A further interest attaches itself to our wild life from the association 
with the folk-lore and legendary beliefs of the country. The Fifth 
Pillar Edict of Asoka may be borne in mind. The profuse and 
engrossing Memoirs of Jehangir are a real Natural History of the 
earlier animal life in India. 

The danger to wild life has been accentuated in recent years by the 
enormous increase of firearms in use, and by the inability "of Govern- 
ments to enforce such laws as exist for the protection of the wild 
animals.. To-day there is no educated man who does not realise that 
the realm of Nature provides Science with a vast and productive field 
for research. Who can say what products still remain to be discovered 
which will one day be. priceless to Man? (e.g., Ins'ulih.) " ,, l4J 

Any scheme' for the protection of wild life must inelude""birds. 
Crops provide the clash between the interests of Maji and the Animal- 
Areas under cultivation are extending in proportion ,of the ne^ds of 
increased population. Cultivated areas must be protected fromjwi.ld 



1 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

animals. Human progress must continue and in the clash of interests 
between Man and the Animal human interests must not suffer. This 
problem has been faced in other countries; cannot India make a 
reasonable effort to do the same ? The time has come when it is 
necessary for us to review the position and take such measures as are 
necessary to give real protection to the wild life of India. 

National Parks provide the means by which the clash of interests 
between Man and the Animal is ovbiated. Parks in other countries — 
Kruger Park, Pare National Albert — are world renowned. National 
Parks within the Dominion of Canada have resulted in bringing a 
great amount of money into the country. National Parks in Switzer- 
land, Italy, Spain (Sweden has fourteen National Parks), Finland, 
Austria, Czecho-Slovakia, Belgium, Belgian Congo and other countries 
exist, inspiration and guidance for India can be gathered from all 
these. National Parks and Reserves may provide the only means of 
giving adequate protection to wild life without hampering agricultural 
development. 

In the United Stales and in other countries the problem of financing 
the work of conservation has been helped by creation of special Funds. 
There is need for creation of sane public opinion on the subject of 
Wild Life Protection in India; and in most Western countries Nature 
Study teaching is a serious part of the earlier stages of the "school 
curriculum. 

3. (b) Dunbar Brander (Central Provinces).—"! left India in 1922 
and revisited it in 1928, and was appalled to find such a change in 
so short a peiiod, quite common species being found only with 
difficulty." "Game has almost disappeared from Private Lands. 
Theie is now nothing to be seen from the train along 200 miles of 
antelope country between Bombay and Allahabad. Nothing can save 
the fauna in the private lands. Its extermination is certain." "Forest 
Act and Rules thereunder are in my opinion excellent. It is in 
application that they fail. Fail in prevention of poaching. There is 
lucrative trade in game. The Forest Guard finds the easiest plan is 
to take a 'percentage of the profits." "Rewards sanctioned by the 
Rules in poaching cases are too sparingly given, and the Magistrates' 
sentences' are often quite inadequate." Among the main reasons for 
increased destruction of game are the commercialization of game, the 
large increase in the number of guns licensed as well as a large 
increase in unlicensed or illegal guns. The State forests are surrounded 
by guns, many of which are used in constantly destroying game both 
inside the forest and just outside it. Suggested remedial measures: — 
attempt to check the increase of guns, even reduce them; stricter control 
of tanneries and business trading in wild fauna and its products; 
complete review of the rules so as to deal with the motor vehicle and 
bring the "owner and the driver within the penalties of law-breaking; 
stiffer sentences by Magistrates. Rewards to be granted as a matter of 
course; establish Associations for the protection of wild life. Arouse 
enlightened Indian opinion. 

Banjar Valley Reserve recommended as suitable for a National 
Park, wild buffalo would return to it if given encouragement. 

"I consider thai action in India is urgently required, perhaps more 
so than in Africa." 

3. (c) G. Monteith (Bombay State).— Prior to C. 1 930 trade in horns 
and hides was not in Bombay Presidency such as to matter very much. 

3 



PREFACE 3 

Burden of proof that an animal was killed outside Government forest 
should be on the defence; the wild dog does not do so much damage 
as is supposed. Reasons are given why the "Block" system benefits 
game, and also the Forest Department by reason of less work on the 
Staff. A plea is entered for the Sloth Bears because they are nervous 
creatures and apt to be hasty in action if startled, but generally 
Speaking do nO harm. Object lesson is given of how prohibition of 
any form of hunting except 'still-hunting'; and a short open season; 
and a limit of one head per licence enables stock of chital to rapidly 
recover. "Sanctuaries, unless of manageable size as is arranged under 
the 'Block' system, might very well in the end prove to be no sanctu- 
aries at all." Trappers and snarers eliminate antelope and gazelle. 
Animals outside the forests are equally the property of the State. 
Arms licences for sport should be issued for a sufficient fee. There 
should be no shooting from the cover of any kind of motor vehicle, 
or by the aid of motor head-lights. Trade in meat or trophies of 
any kind of game animal' should be illegal and carry heavy penalty 
against both buyer and seller. Penalties should be adequate, and 
punishment include attachment of gun or rifle. 

Note. — All the Forest Officers are at one in considering a separate Game 
Department of Wild Life not necessary and would be resented by the Forest 
Department. 

3. (d) A. J. M. Milroy (Assam). — Formation of Forest Villages 
should be cautiously proceeded with; calling in of crop guns after 
harvest is over is only logical and reasonable. Monas and Kazirunga 
Sanctuaries need good roads and camping huts to make them access- 
ible and attractive to visitors. Parts of the former may be opened to 
shooting with strict supervision and very high fees. It is related how 
the Sanctuaries could be made self-supporting. Balipara Political Area 
remarked upon as a rhinoceros conservation area. "The Assam of the 
future may very well be proud to think it is taking its stand by the 
side of other civilised countries in saving its fauna from extinction." 
(But it has recently allowed the Manipur race of the Brow-antlered 
Deer to be totally exterminated.) 

3. (e) F. W. Champion (Uttar Pradesh). — Inside Government 
forests not so bad as in other parts of India. Reasons given. Outside 
the forests, "Frankly, the position is appalling. Animals like black 
buck, chital and game birds both in the plains and particularly in the 
hills are literally being wiped out at an increasingly rapid rate and 
one wonders if there will be anything left but monkeys and jackals 
in another two or three decades." Admitted' the deer do seriously 
interfere with management and revenue of valuable forests. "In some 
places, particularly where the balance of Nature has been upset by 
the excessive destruction of carnivora, deer have become a positive 
pest and it has proved necessary to reduce their number." It is not 
the general opinion of Forest Officers that deer should be eliminated. 
Use of game-proof fencing though expensive in initial cost, is effective 
for protection of special plantations and can be moved from place 
to place as required, "and is probably the best solution for managing 
forests, both in the interest of the Forester and also the indigenous 
wild life." "Modern rifles are so good, and the shooting with help 
of a motor car so easy, that probably a greater proportion of the 
existing animal population is shot annually nowadays than was "the 
case in the past," It is not so certain that the head of game in the 



4 THE PRESERVATION Ot WJLD LIFE IN INDIA 

reserved forests, except the high hill forests, is not decreasing. "The 
position in ordinary districts is almost hopeless." "Public opinion is 
by far the most important of all methods of wild life conservation, 
and without it all efforts to preserve wild creatures will prove 
abortive." 

It is of vital importance that a law be passed at an early date 
totally forbidding the sale of any* portion of a wild animal with certain 
exceptions (dropped horns). If too difficult to limit the number of 
arms, greater effort could be made to differentiate between game 
licences and licences for protection of crops, person, property or 
display. Rewards should be given far more sparingly than at present 
for destroying wild animals. Except for man-eaters, and notoriously 
destructive creatures such as porcupines, they are quite unnecessary. 
There should be check 'chowkies' at entrances .and exits of roads 
passing through forests, the cost to be recovered by a small wheel-tax. 

3. (/) R. D. Richmond (Madras State). — If properly administered 
the 16,000 square miles of forests form permanent abodes for game 
and other animals. (A "Madras Mail" sub-leader of 16th October 1952 
states that, even normally, 15,000 sq. miles out of the 19,000 sq. miles 
of reserved forest and forest land in the Madras State is open for 
grazing.) "Game protection is a definite duty of the forest staff." 
Average area of a Division is 500 sq. miles; and of a Forest Guard's 
'beat' 10 sq. miles. So the machinery for protection exists. A second 
line of defence is to declare threatened areas to be game reserves 
and so protect the species in them. One of the best methods of 
control lies in the presence of a licensed sportsman. Preserves appear 
•to be uncalled for; the whole of the forest area is a preserve. There 
seems to be no ground for apprehension that game animals are 
decreasing. National Parks should be of great general interest and 
administrative value, and tend to promote desired public opinion. 

Note.— The long paragraph on second page of Mr. Richmond's Report 
invites close attention because of the many important questions included in it. 

3- (g) R- C. Morris (Comment on Mr. Richmond's Contribution). — 
Considers that the Forest Department have failed to afford necessary 
protection for the fauna, and cannot be expected to devote the 
requisite amount of time to Game Preservation, however interested 
they might be in the matter, "and I am sorry to say that in many 
cases these days (c. 1934) there is little interest". Considers that 
chital, black buck, chinkara will be extinct in South India before 
many years, as have-become the Nilgai. Considers there should be 
a separate Wild Life Department, and does not see why friction 
should arise. Outside government forests very little game exists, and 
, ttis remnant is rapidly vanishing. The present laws in the Madras 
Presidency would be very effective if properly enforced. Considers 
the poacher of the present day is a far more dangerous enemy^than 
in the past; and in course of time no part of the jungles will be. free 
from their activities. Says damage done by wild beasts to crops is 
very much exaggerated: except that the elephants do much damage. 
Suggests the measures by which elephants could be controlled. 
Suggests several ways in which matters could be improved: — Legislation 
prohibiting marketing of all parts of game animals throughout the 
year is very necessary; sportsmen should aid by reporting poaching 
offences; there should be immediate dismissal of any Forest Guard 
in whose 'beat' an illicit 'hide' or machan is found. Suggests stricter 

4 



PREFACE 5 

control over Village Headmen and Forest Guards. Suggests measures 
for restriction of weapons which may be used for poaching. Gives 
list of items of revenue which could be applied to a Wild Life Depart- 
ment. Has in mind two areas in Madras State which could be 
National Parks. 

3. (A) E. G. Phythian-Adams (Mysore State).— "One has only to 
read old sporting books ... to fully appreciate the terrible rate at 
which game has decreased and is ever decreasing in Mysore." So 
wrote Russell in 1900. Writing c. 1935 Phythian-Adams states: No 
dearth of bison; sambar and spotted deer still in fair number; black 
buck (thanks to protection) largely recovered from the depletion before 
the Great War; except in the south-east border (where deer have 
been killed off) tigers are as numerous as ever; panthers as 
much a pest as ever; bears, though hard to find, certainly exist in 
fair number; wild dogs not on the decrease; wolves have decreased. 
There are few bustard left, and their survival, if left longer with- 
out protection, most unlikely. Poaching is widespread and largely 
unchecked. On paper the Game Laws of the State serve as a model 
of their kind. Education of public opinion is essential, measures for 
it suggested; equally important is creation of a Wild Life Fund. 
Presence of sportsmen in the shooting areas is one of the grealest 
curbs on the activities of Ihe poacher. "Present position (c. 1935) of 
Wild Life in Mysore is not unsatisfactory but will certainly deteriorate 
in the near future unless steps are taken to prevent it." Eight measures 
are suggested to effect improvement. "Every possible step to be taken 
in time to make the people realise their national asset of wild life." 
3. (/) SalimA. AH (Hyderabad State).— The State is divided into 
Circles for shooting purposes. Open season is short, 1st March to 
31st May and ten days at Christmas. For black buck, open season 
1st December to 31st May. Areas open to tiger shooting depend upon 
the increase and decrease of these animals. Only half the number of 
districts comprising Circles are open at a time, shooting areas in those 
districts also defined. "For thirty years prior to 1935 there has been 
a steady and perceptible diminution of game. Poaching devices in the 
forests are common. There is connivance on the part 'of the revenue 
or forest petty officials. Some of the greatest offenders are such 
people, and well-to-do and so-called educated citizens who should 
know better." Feathered game in Hyderabad is now (c. 1935) in 
a particularly bad way. Speedy and drastic measures are necessary; 
Professional snaiers are able to carry on year in year out. In many 
areas feathered game has been reduced to the very verge of extinction, i 
"The man with the gun does not do half so much damage as the 
snarer. .He is like a broom, for he sweeps everything before him 
into his net." So related a Senior Police Officer who was also a keen 
sportsman. The principal reasons for decrease of game are stated 
to be: increase of population; roads and railway lines; motor cars 
and buses; penetration of all these into remote areas and shooting 
from the same. Suggested remedies are stated in eight paragraphs. 
"It emerges clearly that at the back of all the difficulties is apathy and 
want of public opinion." 



THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 
GUIDE TO PARAGRAPHS OF THE SUMMARISED INDEX 



Page 

Preface and extracts 44. 

3 (a) to 3(f) 1-5 45. 

1. Afforestation 7 46. 

2. Antelope 7 

3. Assam 7 47. 

4. Associations 7 

5. Balance of Nature 8 48. 

6. Banjar Valley Reserve . . 9 49. 

7. Bears 9 50. 

8. Bihar 9 51. 

9. Biology 9 52. 

10. Birds 9 53. 

1 1 . Bird Sanctuaries 10 54. 

12. Bison and Buffalo 10 55. 

13. Block System 10 56. 

14. Carnivora 10 57. 

1 5. Cattle Diseases 11 58. 

16. Close Seasons — Animals 12 59. 

17. Close Seasons— Birds 12 60. 

18. Conferences 12 61. 

19. Conservation and Con- 

trol 13 62. 

20. Conservation — Multi- 

purpose Projects .... 14 63. 

21. Crocodiles 14 

22. Definitions 15 64. 

23. Destruction of Wild Life 15 65. 

24. Disafforestation — Desic- 66. 

cation 15 67. 

25. Education 15 68. 

26. Egret 16 69. 

27. Elephant 16 70. 

28. Enforcement 17 71. 

29. Excise Act 17 72. 

30. Fences and Fencing ... . 17 73. 

31. Finances — Wild Life 74. 

Fund 17 75. 

32. Firearms , 18 

33. Firing for Grazing 19 76. 

34. Food 19 77. 

35. Forest Department 19 78. 

.36. Forest Act and Rules.. 20 79. 

37. Forests — Outside the 80. 

Forests 20 81. 

38. ' Forest Guard 20 82. 

39. Forests — National 83. 

Policy 20 84. 

40. Forest Offences 20 85. 

41. Forest Staff 20 86. 

42. Forest Villages 20 87. 

43. Game , 20 88. 



Page 

Hailey National Park . . 20 

Headmen of Villages ... 21 
India — Report to 

I.U.P.N 21 

India — Wild Life Re- 
serves 21 

Insecticides 22 

I.U.P.N. and I.O.P.N.. 22 

Interest — Real Interest 22 

Kashmir 22 

Kruger National Park . . 22 

Lion 22 

Lands 23 

Laws and Rules 23 

Legislation 23 

Licences and Fees 24 

Magistrates 24 

Manuals 24 

Markhor 24 

Motor Vehicle — Use 

and Abuse 24 

Motor Vehicle — Con- 
fiscation 25 

Motor Vehicle — Forest 

Roads 25 

Museums 25 

Mysore State 25 

National Parks 25 

Nature Study 26 

Nilgiris 27 

Nomadic Tribes 27 

Obiter Dicta 27 

Orissa 27 

Parks 27 

Poachers and Poaching . 27 

Porcupines 28 

Protection and Preserva- 
tion 28 

Protection of Nature ... 28 

Public Opinion •. . . . 28 

Remedial Measures. ... 29 

Reserves 30. 

Rewards 30 

Rhinoceros 30 

Roads 30 

Royalties 30 

Salt-licks 31 

Sanctuaries 31 

Shark 31 

Siwaliks 31 

Species in Danger 31 



the summarised index 7 

Page Page 

89. Sport 31 98. Wardens 33 

90. Sportsmen 31 99. Water 33 

91. The State 31 100. Whipsnade 33 

92. Tourists 32 101. Wildfowl 33 

93. Trade — Game Commer- 102. Zoological Gardens — 

cialization 32 Wild Animal Trade 

94. Trapping and Snaring. . 32 — Zoologist 33 

95. Value of Wild Life 32 Conclusion 33 

96. Vermin 32 Acknowledgment 34 

97. Veterinary 33 

THE SUMMARISED INDEX 

1. Afforestation. — "Nature conservation, and conservation of soil, 
forests, grass-lands, and water are intimately connected. . .This question 
is just as fundamental to agriculture, horticulture, forestry, game 
preservation and fisheries, etc., as it is to the management of National 
Parks. . .Re-afforestation is the sovereign remedy to check soil erosion; 
and 'Plant More Trees' should be our slogan for the next (many) 
decade(s)" (4 F. M. S. Randhawa). 

2. Antelope. — In 3 (b) Dunbar Brander remarks upon the rapid 
disappearance of black buck along the railway line between Bombay 
and Allahabad; the other contributions make similar observations. 
Tn 3(g) Morris remarks as to Madras State: "Outside Government 
forests very little game exists and the remnant is rapidly vanishing. 
There is special urgency for protection of chital, black buck, 4-horned 
antelope and, in some parts, sambar. The Nilgai has vanished." 
(That was written in 1934. In 1951 the Government of Madras declared 
the whole year to be a close time for shooting of peafowl and black 
buck. Only shooting mentioned, so snaring can proceed as before: 
no mention of the vanishing bustard.) 

3. Assam. — The contribution [3 (c)] by Milroy may be seen. 
Also see 5 (b) by E. P. Gee: Country and forests described — Measures 
to preserve wild life related— wild life sanctuaries listed and described — 
outlook for the future — Schedule of particulars of wild life sanctuaries 
in Assam — a Map of Assam. See 5 (e), p. 736. "It is indeed a sad 
reflection that when the writer was in Burma in 1891 thamin were in 
their thousands, and are now close to vanishing point. Some will be 
saying that the saving from extinction of a few deer is a very small 
matter in these tremendous times. But is it so small a matter that 
a species (the Manipur race of the Brow-antlered Deer) should be , 
negligibly allowed to vanish from creation?" (See last paragraph of 
this Compiler's Introduction to this Volume.) See 4 G, 6 (a), (b). 

■ 4. Associations. — See 4B. 'Wild Life and Game Associations': 
"Where these exist they are, if well organised and conducted, wholly 
productive of good." A remedial suggestion by Dunbar Brander [3 (£)] 
is: "Establishing Associations for the protection of wild life, and 
rousing educated public opinion, and enlisting influential men as 
members of such Societies." In 4 D, M. D. Chaturvedi states that: 
"Associations organised in the past for the preservation of wild life 
have seldom functioned" and cites the Association for Preservation of 
Game in the U.P. The proposal by F. Brayne, i.c.s., in reference 
No. 25, p. 620 qf 4 B, was to form big Game Syndicates and take Qver 

7 



8 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

blocks of jungle on long lease from the Forest Department. The 
Department would not agree. Another proposal was to form a Game 
Preservation Society with branches in every Province. "The Society 
would be, of course, just as much Indian as British." There was 
no result from either of these suggestions. The origin and progress 
of the well organised and conducted Nilgiri Game Association of 
73 years standing is fully dealt with by Phythian-Adams in 8 (a) and 
in 8 (b). [It is well known in South India that had it not been for 
that Association there would at this trme (1952) be very little game 
left in the Nilgiris District. But see 'Motor Vehicles Confiscatien'.] 

The Sportsmen's Club of Orissa. — The formation of this semi- 
scientific Club was welcomed by the Bombay Society. "It is obviously 
a step in the right direction and, in the absence of a properly organised 
and competent Wild Life Department, should go a long way to help 
in tightening up the administration of the game rules and in suppressing 
poaching and other illegal practices detrimental to local fauna and 
flora. H. E. Janab Asaf Ali, Governor of Orissa, is Patron-in-Chief, 
and Shri N. Senapatti, i.c.s., President. With its influential Executive 
Committee a solid foundation seems to have been laid. It augers well 
for the present and future protection and conservation of the wild 
life of the Province. 

The objects set out in the Constitution are: — 

(a) to ensure maintenance of the balance of the fauna of 

Orissa, 

(b) to promote sportsmanship among the members of the Club, 

(c) to assist members to procure arms and ammunition and 

preserve their trophies, 

(d) to organise shooting and scientific excursions for members, 

(e) to assist the authorities in the enforcement of game laws, 
(/) to study the fauna of Orissa." 

Comment. — The paragraph on p. 606 of 4 B may be seen as to the 
Eastern States. Should this Club have continued success, and be 
taken as a model by other States and Unions the movement should 
result in largely aiding the functions of the Central and other Boards 
of Control of Wild Life throughout India. All such Sportsmen's Clubs 
might consider making available to their members printed copies of 
the article, "Sportsmanship and Etiquette in Shooting" contributed, by 
Lt.-Col. E. G. Phythian-Adams, o.b.e., f.z.s., to Vol. 47, pp. 684-89 
(1948). 

' - In 1933 an Association for the Preservation of Wild Life was 
inaugurated at Madras by the then Governor of the Presidency, but 
it came to nothing and was not again -heard of (4 B, p. 612). 

5. Balance of Nature. — Formation of National Parks and Sanc- 
tuaries [4 C, para 18 (<?)]: "So long as their numbers do not become 
excessive, tigers and panthers have a useful place in Nature. If one 
animal is. stressed at expense _of another the balance of nature is 
upset and disastrous results may folllow. The policy shoud be not 
to interfere with nature unless shown by periodical censuses to be 
absolutely necessary." _4F (referring to 'Biology'): "...before any 
such campaigns are. started, it should be ascertained whether wholesale 
destruction of certain birds or animals may not have harmful repur- 
cussions elsewhere on account of the upsetting of the balance of 
power between various organisms. _ An action which prima facie may 
appear sensible and desirable may have far-reaching and most unpleasant 

8 



THE SUMMARISFD INDEX 9 

and unforseen consequences fifty years hence." (The enumerated 
functions of the proposed Biological Service may be seen.) 9 C (ii), 
Uganda, 2nd October 1947, Resolution 6 (d): "The economic import- 
ance of the larger carnivora in preserving the balance of nature has 
always been appreciated..." And see 3(e) for Champion's remarks 
regarding deer in some places in U.P. forests having become a positive 
pest owing to the excessive destruction of carnivora. See 'Carnivora'. 

6. Banjar Valley Reserve. — In 3 (b) the Valley is described, area 
stated, and the Reserve declared by Dunbar Brander to be specially 
suited for a National Park. 

7. Bears. — In 3 (c) Monteith rightly says the Sloth Bear is 
a nervous creature and apt to be hasty in action if startled, but does 
no real harm; 5 (./'): "Up to sixty years ago the sloth bear was 
really plentiful all over the forested tracts of India and Assam from 
the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon. . .Nowhere is it protected under 
shooting rules." [For need of protection and preservation in all Parks 
and Sanctuaries situated in its natural habitat, see para 18 (d) of 4 C] 
5 (/'): "The Kashmir Brown Bear is feared to be approaching extermi- 
nation because of its handsome pelt." [See pp. 102-108 of 9A(v) 
for 'Bears and Their Surroundings' and pp. 109-111 for size — distinc- 
tive characters — distribution and habits of the three principal Indian 
species of. Bear.] 

8. Bihar.— See 'India'— Wild Life Reserves. 

9. Biology. — M. S. Randhawa (4F): "In India also there is need 
of a Central Biological Service under the Ministry of Agriculture of 
the Government of India to deal with problems relating to the con- 
servation of nature, national parks and fisheries." . . . The Biologists 
must give lists of harmful and useful birds and animals. The biologists 
should give a finding whether campaigns should be started for the 
destruction of wild boars, porcupines, monkeys, bats and parrots who 
cause enormous damage to crops and gardens. See also 'Balance of 
Nature'. Africa, 9C(v), p. 22: "In addition we know far too little 
to-day of the biology of the wild life of Africa. This knowledge is 
essential for efficient conservation and can only be obtained by 
appointing qualified zoologists and biologists as permanent members 
of the various African Game Departments" (Keith Caldwell). "Oryx", 
9C(vi), p. 186: "At last attention is being paid to the research side 
of game conservation, and the appointment of a qualified zoologist 
to the various African Game Departments has been accepted in 
principle. In addition plans are under consideration for a complete 
team (biologist, veterinary research officer, ecologist. and game ranger) 
to undertake an extended faunal survey in Northern Tanganyika, 
where adequate material is easily available (Keith Caldwell). 

10. Birds.— 3 (a): "Any scheme for the Protection of Wild ,Life 
would be incomplete without due protection for our birds. Quite 
apart from a sentimental value birds render incalculable service to 
Man... We cannot expect preservation in urban lands, but measures 
should be taken for protection of birds in urban areas. Municipal- 
ities and Local Boards could form bird sanctuaries. There is need 
to put an end to wanton destruction of familiar birds which takes 
place in the immediate vicinity of towns." 3 (/;): "Turning to birds, 
the only resident which has seriously decreased (c. 1935) is the Great 
Indian Bustard ... their survival. . .if left longer without protection is 
most unlikely. Great numbers of partridges and peafowl are snared 

9 



10 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

and sold in the towns Ihroughout the year. . .migratory duck and 
teal have certainly greatly decreased in numbers during the past ten 
years ... spotbill duck and whistling teal breed locally. . .trade in their 
eggs should be made illicit..." 4D: In the Madras State partridges, 
quail, sandgrouse, pigeon have no close season. Partridges and quail 
are sold in Municipal Markets in breeding seasons. See Salim Ali 
[3 (j)] as to the position of feathered game in Hyderabad State; and 
pp. 603-604 of 4 B Birds— Nomadic Tribes— Value of Birds. The 
'Time for Decision' remarks on pp. 605-606 of 4 B may be seen. 
See 'Close Seasons'— 'Trapping'. On p. 905, Vol. 50, August 1952, 
Dr. Dillon Ripley expresses fear of extinction of the Great Indian 
Bustard and hopes the Government will take pains to publicise the 
need to protect this rare and magnificent bird. 

The habits of the species precludes the idea of its preservation in 
sanctuaries. Should it be necessary, it might be preserved (wings 
clipped) in some of the suggested zoological parks in areas suitable 
to its habits. Whether it would breed under such conditions remains 
to be ascertained. See 4 G, para 7 and para 32. "The Florican is 
one of the Indian Game Birds which requires most rigid protection, 
as it is constantly shot and harassed during the breeding season." ' 
(Stuart Baker, Fauna of British India, Birds, Vol. VI, p. 71.) 

11. Bird Sanctuaries. — See paragraphs 31-33 of 4 G. 'The only 
officially declared bird sanctuaries in India are those on Islands of the 
Cauvery River near Seringapatam in Mysore State. Paragraph 15 of 
4 C may be seen. 

12. Bison and Buffalo.— 5 (j): "The Indian Gaur or 'Bison' 
seems at present to be holding its own; but too many are shot, some 
are being poached for meat and the species is subject to cattle diseases 
' — so there is no room for complacency." For the Indian Wild Buffalo 
see 4 C, para 18(c). See 'Cattle Diseases'. 

13. "Block" System. — In 3 (c) Monteith remarks upon this 
arrangement for shooting in Government forests giving reasons N for 
its benefit to conservation of game, and to the Forest Department 
through less work on the Staff. An object lesson is related of how 
the stock of chital was enabled to rapidly recover through prohibition 
of any form of hunting other than 'still-hunting'; a short open 
season;/ and limit of one head per licence. Comment. — The "Block" 
system has several distinct advantages. It permits of presence of 
sportsmen in even distribution; so benefiting the game and combating 
the poacher; allows of closing or opening portions of forest according 
to the several species of game; allows of formation of sanctuaries of 
block size for all species as decided by the forest officer in control; 
allows of control of licence holder in favour of, or against any parti- 
cular species. 

14. Carnivora.— " Carnivora are the natural enemies of wild life 
(4 B, p. 613). The larger felines — tiger and panther — have their role 
in nature and should not be unduly reduced in the forest areas. The 
smaller predatory species also have a distinct value as a controlling 
influence against over-population by species whose unrestricted increase 
would adversely affect the interests of Man." Comment. — The Indian 
Wild Dog has always been thought a wholly destructive creature, and 
an enemy to conservation as interfering with the .natural prey of the 
tiger and panther. When there were plenty of deer his presence did 
not greatly matter, Now that deer are so greatly reduced in nurnber 

10 



The summarised index 11 

in many areas the wild dog may be turned against the domestic stock, 
like the larger carnivora which increasingly prey upon flocks and 
herds. In practically all forests rewards are paid for destruction of the 
wild dog. The Hunting Cheetah was thought to be practically 
extinct in India in a wild state (4 B, p. 605) but some of the species 
undoubtedly survive, for three males were shot in 1947 (Vol. 47, p. 718) 
and one is reported as seen in Chittoor District of Madras State in 
March 1952 (Vol. 50, p. 931). The Hyena of India is not ordinarily 
greatly inimical to human life and stock; but some [9 A (v), p. 81] 
develop the habit of attacking cattle and goats and have to be dealt 
with. In the Nilgiris [8 (a)]: "The destruction of panthers has resulted 
in a great increase in the number of pig which did so much damage 
to cultivation that in 1921 the Government found it necessary to give 
a reward for their destruction. After some 1,350 had been killed 
the reward was stopped in 1924." Kenya [9 C (ii), p. 44]: "The 
baboon and bush pig plague is very largely Kenya's own fault, since 
she would not listen, till too late, to warnings as to the inevitable 
consequences of allowing the virtual extermination of the leopard 
population over a great part of the Colony. To-day we look upon 
leopards as perhaps the most valuable game animals we have... but 
even so it will take a decade, perhaps several, before they recover 
sufficiently to resume again their proper and intensely valuable role." 
See Champion in 3(a) and also 'Rewards'. 

15. Cattle Diseases. — 3 (g): 'The new experimental measure for 
the compulsory inoculation of village cattle in the Kollegal and North 
Coimbatore Divisions should keep bison comparatively free from 
rinderpest, and it is a measure I should like to see carried out in other 
districts where bison occur'. Hyderabad [3 (./')]: "Large tracts of 
game country have been known to be cleared by rinderpest and foot 
and mouth disease contracted from village cattle left to graze in 
forests inhabited by wild animals." R. C. Morris reports — 7th June 
1952— Vol. 50, p. 936: "...between 15 and 20 bison have died from 
foot and mouth disease caught from village cattle penned in the hill 
forests owing to lack of grazing down below. Had these cattle also 
introduced rinderpest, a similar tragedy to that of 1929 would have 
overwhelmed the large number of bison here (Biligirirangan Hills)." 
7 (ii), p. 359: "Disease is a second adverse factor to be reckoned 
with; rinderpest has accounted for a large number of bison and 
buffalo in Peninsular India, while foot and mouth disease has in 
recent years seriously affected game animals in Kashmir and Himalayan 
ranges." 9 C (iii), p. 29: "A resolution was passed drawing attention 
to the importance of very close co-operation between Game arid 
Veterinary Departments in order to combat diseases borne by wild 
game: for the same reason the resolution also referred to the advis- 
ability of National Parks and Reserves being isolated whenever 
possible." 9 C (ii), p. 30: "It is the case that game in the past has 
played a considerable part in the spread of disease among domestic 
stock. It appears however that Kenya control of disease in humari 
owned beasts by veterinary and administrative measures has already 
done much to decrease this deleterious characteristic on the part of 
the indigenous fauna: and a similar sequence may perhaps be expected 
in the case of certain other diseases which are common to domestic 
and indigenous animals." Comment. — It is within the above extracts 
that perhaps, through energetic and continued action, the transmission 

U 



12 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

of cattle diseases to bison and wild buffalo in India may be brought 
under control. 

16. Close Seasons (Animals). — Provision for protecting wild life 
in the Hyderabad State [3 (_/)] may be seen as indicating an arrange- 
ment by Circles and Districts which might, on closer examination, 
afford practical ideas. Reference 4 G, para 40 quotes 8 (d) and con- 
cisely expresses the important suggestion of no close season for big 
game. 

17. Close Seasons (Birds).— 4 D may be seen for close seasons 
in force in the Madras State and in Mysore State, also for suggestions 
for simplifying Schedules to Acts. At close of his article, "Birds of 
Prey and Their Uses," Vol. 32, p. 743 (1938), C. H. Donald states: 
"A general close season when the carrying of a shotgun is an offence 
under the Act (VIII of 1912) is essential except in the vicinity of 
crops. Crop protection licences might be issued free of charge, but 
the moment the man is found using his gun outside his crops the 
licence should be forfeited and the arm cancelled. Something on these 
lines will have a very beneficial effect, but the present system spells 
extermination of game within the next two decades or so. The rules 
and regulations of the Forest Acts can only apply to protected forests, 
but what about the rest of the country where the 'would-be' shikari, 
to say nothing of the many criminal tribes with their nets and nooses, 
can destroy what they like with impunity!" 5 (j), p. 862: "In India 
there is now urgent need for a nation-wide fixed close time for the 
shotgun from 1st April to 30th September. If enforced, that would 
do much good;..." (The suggestion is as to sportsmen only — not 
crop protection weapons. The shotgun close time should be from 
15th February so as to provide for the breeding seasons of some game 
birds — peafowl and partridges in particular— in various parts of India.) 

,In England, it is now recognised that birds do not know administrative 
boundaries. In a "Field" editorial of 12th December 1952 it is observed 
that what is wanted is one comprehensive Act for protection of all 
birds and their eggs at all times of the year, except a short list of 
birds harmful to agriculture or forestry and game birds and wild-fowl 
which may have to be dealt with by special legislation. Such legisla- 
tion would be abortive unless it were accompanied by adequate means 
to enforce it and adequate penalties. This is the view expressed by 
this compiler in 4 D, which may be seen. See 'Trapping arid Snaring' 
— 'Birds' — 'Legislation'. Comment. — Game birds outside the forests 
can only be saved through study of the several suggested measures 
and enforcement of those considered feasible. See 'Trapping and 
Snaring'. 

18. Conferences (Boards of Control and Committees).— Page 4 of 
Mr. Prater's Introduction may be seen in regard to World Conferences 
prior to about 1934. The following is the text of the Editorial 
Comments referred to in 7 (iv) regarding the Inter- Provincial Confer- 
ence convened by the Government of India at Delhi -in January 1935 
at which the Bombay Society was represented by Mr. Prater. "The 
Conference was instrumental in making a number of detailed recom- 
mendations for the better protection of wild animals both inside and 
outside forest areas. If these recommendations are accepted and put 
into force by the various provincial governments, much will have been 
accomplished to improve the deplorable conditions which exist in 
many parts of the country. But while the Conference made numerous 

12 



THE SUMMARISED INDEX 13 

recommendations of detail — the broad lines underlying the whole 
problem remained unsettled. Among these is the need of fully 
exploring the possibility of creating permanent sanctuaries wherever 
necessary for giving permanent shelter to wild life. Equally important 
is the question of creating a definite agency within the forest department 
for administering the laws relative to the protection of wild animals. 
To fix the responsibility on an already over-worked and under-staffed 
department without providing it with adequate means to enforce these 
laws will not improve the position. The same holds good regarding 
the protection of animal life outside forest areas where their destruc- 
tion is now greatest. More legislation without the means to enforce 
it, must remain, as at present, quite useless in preventing the destruc- 
tion of wild life outside forest areas both in and out of season." 
References by Mr. Randhawa (4 F) to the Wild Life Conservation 
Special Committee, and the Committee's observations, and the enume- 
rated functions of the proposed Biological Service will doubtless be 
considered by the Central Board of Control for India. The same 
writer's observations under 'Protective Legislation' may also be seen. 
The text of the important closing Resolution of the International 
Forestry Conference held at Mysore in April 1949 is given in 4 G, 
para 39. The text of the Conference held at Nairobi in 1947 is 
published in 9 C (ii). The text of the New Delhi Resolution consti- 
tuting and appointing a Central Board for Wild Life is printed at 
commencement of this compilation. 

19. Conservation and Control. — "More and more game will only 
be able to survive in so far as man himself is both willing and able 
to set a limit to killing." (Editorial, I. U.P.N. Bulletin, May 1952.) 
4 A: "Until it is recognised that Wild Life is a valuable natural resource 
and that the benefits derived from an unguarded resource are wasting 
benefits, waste will continue till the resource has gone and the benefits 
have vanished. . .No natural resource is more sensitive to conservation 
than wild life, and no natural resource has suffered more from lack of 
conservation. During the last fifty years species have been exterminated 
due to this deficiency. What we are now doing for conservation of 
wild life in many places is just so much waste of time, because we have 
never got past the stage of treating the work as a casual matter which 
can be undertaken by anyone. . .(see 'Forest Staff'). . .in actual practice 
the work of successfully conserving wild life is one of considerable 
difficulty and is highly specialized work. Few have the aptitude' to 
become practical conservationists, and still fewer have the knowledge 
or experience to enable them to exercise that aptitude if they possess 
it... I think we may claim that the chief object of conservation of 
wild life must be to prevent the disappearance of species. . .Until it 
is recognised as essential to make full-time appointments for those' 
in charge of preservation and protection, so long will the work fail; 
as it has failed everywhere in countries where the preservation of 
fauna is professed, but the application of the principles of conservation 
refused... An important principle of conservation is the utilization of 
natural resources for the benefit of mankind. We cannot improve on 
Theodore Roosevelt's definition of conservation as, 'preservation 
through wise use'. Comment. — Although all the above can be read 
in 4 A these excerpts are here given by way of emphasis. 

In the reference 7 (v) the Editors refer to the pamphlet, Wild Life 
Preservation in India — India's Vanishing Asset, by Lt.-Col. R. W. 

13 



14 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

Burton, a Member of the Society's Advisory Committee and a veteran 
sportsman of over sixty years experience, stressing the urgent need for 
conservation of the Wild Life of India through legislation and practical 
measures before it is too late. Wide distribution of the pamphlet is 
recounted, (4 B is the pamphlet referred to.) 4 C, p. 290: 'Some 
aspects of conservation' may be seen; also para 18 (c) as to some 
aspects of 'Control'. 8 (g): "Wild Life is a very real national asset, 
and no one can object to all reasonable steps being taken for its 
preservation." 9C(ii): "Game conservation is linked at many points 
with territorial development and cannot be separated from other 
aspects of rural administration without creating antagonism to it. 
I would therefore deprecate any subtractions from each territory's 
right to handle its own game problem." Control. — 4 A: "If a Game 
Warden is to achieve the objects of conservation he must only take 
extreme measures when really necessary. The dangerous policy of 
'control' if not properly controlled, is a real menace to the future of 
many species." 5 (j). p. 849: "The conclusion from perusal of the 
old sporting books dealing also with Kashmir and Burma, is that the 
steady diminution of all the game animals began about 1780 as to 
Hindustan, 1840 as to Western Himalayas, and is now nearing its 
climax unless it is halted by all the governments." 

20. Conservation (Multi-purpose Projects). — Proceedings and 
Papers of the Technical Meeting [6 (b), pp. 44-45]. Conclusions and 
Resolutions. Rural landscape as a habitat for flora and fauna in 
densely populated countries. 

5. I. It is important that the general public, the teachers in 
schools and universities, and particularly those engaged in 
changing the landscape such as town and country planners, 
engineers, farmers and foresters should be given adequate 
and up-to-date material on the principles and practice of 
nature protection. The provision of such material in a 
simple and accessible form is urgently needed. 
II. Considering the steady increase of the world population, and 
the constant perfecting of technical equipment, as well as 
the large scope of the projects being undertaken on the 
earth's surface by technicians of all classes, who are not 
at all aware of the pioblems connected with the protection 
of nature, it is deemed desirable that, Courses in the 
conservation of the environment^and the protection of 
nature should be included in the curricula of all universities, 
engineering schools and scientific and technical schools, for 
the students of those colleges who will be responsible 
for the drafting and the realization of these projects. 
III. The attention of the scientific world should be drawn to the 
effects of some of the large-scale works, namely, the 
building of hydro-electric dams, on natural hydiography. 
The drying up of rivers, and of the water table as well as 
the diversion of waters from their natural course towards 
entirely different basins, constitutes a very serious violation 
of natural and millenary water regimes. The alarming 
consequences of this situation should be urgently and 
scientifically studied." See 'Lands' and 'Definitions'. 

21. Crocodiles. — These do an enormous amount of damage to 
all creatures, deer especially, which are forced to drink during dry 

14 



THE SUMMARISED INDEX 15 

season at jungle pools in reserved and other forests. Control by 
game establishments is necessary. Visiting sportsmen should help. 

22. Definitions. — 4 G may be seen for definitions of ' Wild Life 
Park' and 'Dual-Purposes Park'; paragraph 21 for 'animal' — 'trap' — 
'vegetation'; para 38 gives a list of some 'Obiter dicta'; definition of 
'adequate' in 38(g) is of special importance; 'conservation' may be 
also- shortly defined as 'management of resources of plant and animal 
life' [6 (a), p. 33]. 

Wild Life Commission of Malaya, Vol. II, p. 151: 'animal' or 
'Wild Life' includes birds, reptiles, riverine fish, and every kind of 
vertebrate animal, and the young thereof, and the eggs of birds, reptiles 
and riverine fish. 

23. Destruction of Wild Life. — See 'Definitions', also 'Poachers' 
and 'Remedial Measures'. 4G may be seen for Birds — Nomadic 
Tribes — Species in Danger — Guns and Greed — Crop Protection — 
Guns — Natural Enemies of Wild Life. See 'India', report to l.U.P.N. 

24. Disafforestation (Desiccation). — The article contributed by 
M. S. Randhawa, "Progressive Desiccation of Northern India in 
Historical Times" is instructive [Vol. 45(4), pp. 558-565 (1948)]. 
Some portions of 5 (h) are in similar strain, p, 375 in particular. 
Those interested may see the full text .of both these references. The 
"Madras Mail" sub-leader of 16th October 1952 clearly demonstrates 
how those very forces of destruction which brought about the desic- 
cation of Northern India and the Siwaliks are now being practised by 
the Government and the people of the taluks of Chittoor, Cuddapah 
and Bellary in the Madras State. "Many are the paths along which 
man proceeds to destruction, though his main object is his own 
survival." 

25. Education. — Mr. Salim A. Ali, who is the Society's expert 
on Nature Study for Children, remarks on last page of 3 (_/')•' "Lectures 
and the exhibition of suitable cinema films should be organised in 
order to rouse the public from its apathy and make it realise the 
value and importance of wild life, and appreciate the measures and the 
arguments put forward for its protection and preservation. A begin- 
ning must be made with the children in the schools by means of 
properly arranged Nature Study Programmes so that they will grow 
up to a love of Nature and to a sense of responsibility for the conser- 
vation of wild life which is their natural heritage. Let us hope it will 
not be too late before the necessary steps are taken by the authorities." 
See 4 B, p. 606 for Propaganda and p. 619 for Propaganda Methods. 
4 C, para 5: "It is the obvious duty of both Central and Provincial 
Governments to employ all possible means of propaganda for instruc- 
tion and enlightenment of the people in their responsibilities as 
outlined above." See para 12, Peoples' Parks in which 'is also 
reference to' Museums. See 'Nature Study' and 'Public Opinion'. 
6 (b), p. 17: "In connection with the subject of education in the field 
of nature protection, Mrs. Lucie Pluygers (Netherlands) mentioned 
several conclusions she had reached in Indonesia. . .a clear distinction 
could be made between the education of teachers and of the children 
and of the general public." "Mr. N. Laude (Belgium) called attention 
to what had been done in the Belgian Congo in this field, which he 
regarded as one of the most important practical problems on the 
agenda of the meeting. . .Talks on nature protection were given to 
groups, of scouts and educated negroes.. .A nature protection badge 

15 



\6 THE PJRESfcRVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDlA 

was given to scouts who had done their 'good deed' in the field of 
conservation. He emphasised the fact that primary schools should be 
given priority in this work. He recommended the Union to prepare 
a syllabus which might be used to increase the number of courses and 
lectures given on the subject throughout the world." 6(b), p. 48 
(M. C. Bloemers, H. P. Gorter and R. J. Beathem). 
V. Education. — 

(a) The aims of nature protection can be attained only if all the 

aspects of their essential importance have been brought 
home to the people (Nicholson, Gorter, Bentham, Vanden 
Berghen). 

(b) In this meeting special attention might be given to the need 

of teaching the principles of nature protection to future 
technicians (engineers, agronomists, etc.) who will take 
an important part in the planning and carrying out of 
large-scale modifications in the- landscape (Nicholson). 

(c) The education of teachers and protection experts needs 

special care (Nicholson). (One of the many facets of 
Protection of Nature and of World Resources is the 
protection and conservation of Wild Life.) (See 
'Definitions'.) 

26. Egret, — 4 D, p. 779 may be seen. Four species have a June 
to February close season in Madras State. The Egret, being world 
renowned for its usefulness to the farmer, should have whole year 
protection. "Jn Ceylon, notwithstanding complete protection under 
the laws, great slaughter of fledgling egrets and destruction of their 
eggs takes place, so it is possible that similar destruction may occur 
in some parts of India also, especially in these days of food shortage." 
Editorial Notes, 'Oryx', October 1950, bring "to notice that in 1949 

'there were indications of revival of the Plumage Trade by the abomin- 
able fashion of wearing wild bird plumage in women's hats. . .the most 
popular feathers of course are those from birds of paradise and 
egrets, the latter called m the trade 'Osprey' or 'Aigrette'. . .in 1911 
egret plumes were selling in London at eight pounds sterling per 
ounce, or for more than their weight in gold. " In this connection 
paragraph 'Birds' on page 603 of 4 B may be read and the danger 
of the plumage trade again arising be always kept in mind. 

27. Elephant. — 4 A: "...In case of large wild animals, such as 
the elephant, the frequent wounding by firing at them with any sort 
of missile, even bird shot, merely aggravates the trouble." 4 B, p. 614: 
suggestions under 'Crop Enemies' may be seen. R. . C. Morris in 
para 9 of 3 (g): "It is suggested that one of the best methods to meet 
the elephant problem (ante reference makes similar suggestion) is the 
appointment of three or four salaried men to shoot the' J le'ading 
offending bulls at the time crops are being raided. A strong fence 
around the fields will keep out most of the other animals that matter." 
8 (c): "The elephant question is one which (where the species exists) 
ruins much of our efforts to save game. The Forest Department in 
Kanara in 1922 temporarily offered a reward for the destruction of 
elephants, but had to discontinue it for want of funds. The Kanara 
elephants were constantly being reinforced by protected elephants from 
Mysore and possibly even further south." R. C. Morris reports that 
electric fencing is effective against elephants. Except in special cases 
this is perhaps too expensive for general use. He also reports the 

16 



fHE SUMMARISED INDEX ij 

successful use of the bamboo-tube "Rocket-gun" against crop-raiding 
elephants. In this connection reference may be had to last two 
paragraphs of 'Crop Protection' in 4B, p. 608. 

28. Enforcement. — Phythian-Adams in 3 (li): "As has been said 
above, the existing Game Laws are a model of their kind, but as has 
been found in other parts of India it is one thing to pass a iaw and 
quite another thing to enforce it." Further remarks in the same 
paragraph may be read. The paragraph 'Ceylon' in 4 B may be herd 
referred to. Comment. — AH through the literature of wild life preserva* 
tion is stressed the difficulty of enforcement of laws and rules 
concerning it. One main remedy is increase of Forest Staff, and this 
would be possible were a Game Fund established in all the States 
and Unions and at the Centre also. Chapter II and other provisions 
of the Bombay Act. 1951, may be seen. See 'Legislation'; see 4 G, 
para 38 («); see 'Magistrates'. 

29. Excise Act. — Paragraph 28 (d) of reference 4 G may be seen, 
and read with 'Motor Vehicles'. 

39. Fences and Fencing. — F. W. Champion remarks in 3 (e) that 
considerable areas of plantations and natural regeneration of valuable 
trees are entirely closed by game- proof fencing which keeps out the 
deer and can be moved from place to place as required, "and are 
probably the best solution for managing forests both in the interest 
of the forester and also of the indigenous wild life". R C. Morris 
remarks in 3 (g) that a strong fence round fields will keep out most 
of the animals (other than elephants) that matter. Hubback observes 
in 4 A: ". . .in most cases his (the ryot's) crops can be more efficiently 
protected (than by use of a gun) by a stout stake and rail fence . . . 
Have a proper financial policy with a Wild Life Fund; allow (he Game 
Warden full powers to spend it; then these matters would be dealt 
with by those who know what to do and relief could be, and no doubt 
would be, given to cultivators by fencing and other methods." 
Comment. — The yearly construction and repair of fences has always 
been a heavy task, and necessary against straying cattle as well as 
wild beasts. In these days of shortage of fuel the cultivator has in 
many places to go yet further afield for the requisite thorny materials; 
for even the most thorny of shrubs are put to fuel uses by the villagers. 
See 'Elephant' for electric fencing. 

31. Finances (Wild Life Fund).—S. H. Prater in 3(a): "In the 
United States and other countries the problem of financing the work 
of conservation has been helped by the creation of special funds." 
T. R. Hubback in 4 A: "...there is an intimate connection between 
the revenue derived from Wild Life resources and the amount of money 
that can be spent upon its conservation, This is the base upon which 1 
a sound financial policy for efficient conservation can be built.." 
"Wherever laws are passed without adequate means to enforce them 
the work of conservation must fail. A method has been adopted in 
many parts of the United States whereby a Game Fund is established 
by law. . ." The case of Pennsylvania is cited. "Not only was a large 
revenue obtained, but a 'shot-out' State was turned into one of the 
best Sporting estates on the East side of North America ... If the 
system of the Wild Life Fund is adopted, and the organisation 
necessary and possible with the funds obtainable placed in the hands 
of experienced conservationists, success is assured." Both R. C. Morris 
and Hubback give lists of suggested receipts for a Wild Life Fund, 

2 17 



18 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

and a full list is at p. 617 of 4 B. M. D. Chaturvedi in 4 E outlines 
a suggested organisation for the United Provinces and gives a list of 
proposed receipts to be credited to a separate head of revenue. 4 E: 
"The cadre of the Forest Department should be supplemented to enable 
it to organise wild life preservation on modern lines" and in 5 (d) 
the D.F.O. writes as to guarding of the Sanctuary: "There is no 
special staff for the maintenance and supervision of the sanctuary. 
The territorial staff is expected to look after it, which is not an 
adequate arrangement." 7 (ii), p. 363: "The whole question of Game 
Protection and the tightening up of the laws affecting it is a matter 
of money." 7 (iv), p. 223: "Equally important is the question of 
creating within the Forest Department a definite agency for adminis- 
tering the laws relative to the protection of wild animals." 9 C (iii): 
"The far-sighted activities of the Northern Rhodesian Government is 
an example to the rest of the territories which are content to absorb 
into general revenue the large sums directly derived from game, yet 
starve the departments responsible for producing them" (Keith Cald- 
well). Bihar, 5 (c): "The funds for sanctuary development have so 
far been very small. . .the total budget provision under this head 
('Game Improvement') for the entire Province is less than Rs. 3,000, 
in spite of the fact that the total Forest Revenue exceeds 30 lakhs of 
rupees." 9 C (iii), p. 26: "Efficient preservation and efficient control 
can only be undertaken by increased staffs" (Keith Caldwell). 

The foregoing excerpts present the case for formation of a Wild 
Life Fund. The following is the argument as stated by Mr. S, H. 
Prater at pp. 10 and 1 1 of his Introduction: 
A Wild Life Fund is, 

The only means by which financial provision can be made 

expressly for the purpose of conservation; 
The only means by which money devoted to this purpose will 
have a definite relation to the revenues derived by the 
State from wild life sources, and which can be expended 
with every justification upon the conservation of these 
sources; 
The only way to ensure an equitable system of conservation; 
The only way by which a properly organised Department, 

within the Forest Department, can be established; 

The only solution advanced in other' countries, and one which 

is equally applicable to any country which undertakes the 

conservation of wild life on sound lines... "The necessity 

for conservation being clear, the importance of an adequate 

financial policy to enforce it cannot be ignored." (The 

relevant paragraph in the Introduction to this Volume may 

be seen.) 

32. Firearms (Guns — Cut-short barrels — Cultivators' Guns— 

'Rocket' Gurfs}. — '''The danger to the wild life of the country has been 

accentuated in recent years by the enormous increase of firearms in 

use.". . ."There has been a very large increase in the number of gun 

licences issued, as well as a large increase in unlicensed or illegal 

guns. "..."At least greater efforts could be made to differentiate 

between game licences and licences issued for the protection of crops, 

person, property or display.". . ."Considerable moderation in the issue 

of gun licences, especially in areas adjacent reserved or unreserved 

forests.". . ."Guns issued for crop protection are used for poaching, 

J? ' 



THE SUMMARISED INDEX 19 

and such poaching can only be kept in check by the enforcement of 
an energeticbpolicy through an adequate organisation." For 'adequate' 
see 4 G, 38 (q). "...Necessity of Magistrates consulting District 
Forest Officers in all applications for arms licences when the applicants 
reside within poachable distance of reserved and unreserved forests." 
(In these 1952 days of rapid and easy communications where is the 
place which is not within poachable distance of game?) Reference 
may be made to 4 B, p. 608, etc., as to Guns and Greed — Crop 
Protection — The Arms Act. Comment. — In regard to all the above 
it can only be remarked that the guns are here and the guns will stay! 
All that can be done is to tighten up laws and rules and increase 
forest establishments (Game Fund) for exercise of the needed control 
within the forests. 

Cut-short barrels: For argument regarding these see 4 B, p. 608. 
For Crop protection, and use of 'Rocket' guns see same page, where 
it is pointed out that extended u&e of these could considerably lessen the 
number of ' crop protection' weapons. Most of the contributors advocate 
withdrawal of crop protection weapons when the crops are off the ground. 
Administrative objection to this is stated on same page as above. 

Large supplies of shotgun buckshot ammunition are being now 
supplied by ammunition dealers. Use of these leads to much killing 
(and wounding) of animals. There should be administrative measures 
to greatly limit the supply per gun. In matters of this kind it is the 
interests of wild life and the animals, and not the shooter which should 
be considered. The Assam Rules provide that no shotgun cartridge 
loaded with larger than No. 4 shot, and no S.S.G. or slug cartridges 
may be carried in a reserved forest. 

33. Firing for Grazing (Burning of areas within forests for improve- 
ment of grazing). — 9 C (ii), p. 11 : "Controlled burning was also practised 
to a great extent to keep game in selected areas, in other parts it was 
used to eliminate scrub and improve grazing." ...Essential for the 
Trustees of National Parks to keep in mind the necessity for controlled 
burning in order to preserve grazing in game areas." ...Fire is only 
one form (of parks management) though probably the most important. 
By its use under control the national parks can be so arranged that 
at any time there are extensive areas of grazing, and the fauna can 
live comfortably within the parks." (Dr. E. B. Worthington, "Oryx", 
October 1950.) 

34. Food (Parks and Sanctuaries). — Para 18 (b) of 4 C may be 
seen. "Oryx", October 1950, p. 48: "Some authorities would no 
doubt go "further and envisage the possibility of growing extra food 
in some parts of National Parks and making special arrangements for , 
those species which are less capable of standing the hurly-burly of i 
competition. [Some time ago this Compiler suggested to the Pidoung 
(Burma) Sanctuary authority advisability of growing tall reed-grass for 
shelter of the hog-deer; also improving food and water arrangements 
for them.] See 4 G, 14 (a) (k), 17 (c) (d). 

35. Forest Department. — "India owes a great debt of gratitude 
to the many Officers of the Imperial Forest Service who, throughout 
their service, worked continually and persistently to enforce wild life 
protection laws and rules, and to have them perfected. To them is due 
such stock of the larger animals, deer in particular, as existed at time 
of transfer of power in 1947, and has been already, in a number of 
areas, so woefully reduced." (4 C, para 8.) 

19 



20 f Ht Preservation of wild life in indiA 

36. Forest Act and Rules. — "These are on the whole excellent" 
writes Dunbar Brander in 3 (b). This is accepted through all the litera- 
ture. It is in enforcement the trouble arises. See 'Enforcement'. 

37* Forests (Outside the Forests). — The general concensus of 
opinion expressed by all the contributors is that all game animals and 
birds in the open areas outside the forests are doomed to extermination 
if speedy and effectual measures are not taken to prevent it. Para- 
graphs 27, and 31-33 of 4G may be referred to; and see 'Close 
Season' — Birds, 'Legislation', 'Trade', 'Trapping and Snaring'. 

38. Forest Guard. — Area of 'beat' in Madras State about 
10 sq. miles. R. C. Morris recommends in 3 (g) that a forest guard 
should be immediately dismissed if a poaching case in his 'beat' is 
not reported by him. 

39. Forests (National and State Forest Policies). — "The recently 
announced forest policy for India should have excellent long-term 
effect on wild life in general; and the C.P. (1st May 1952) Plan 
announcing 46 recommendations (including game reserves) for manage- 
ment and future development of the Madhya Pradesh protected forests, 
tree forests, minor forests, pasture lands, recreation forests, fuel and 
fodder reserves should be a valuable guide to other States and Unions" 
[5 (j), p. 863]. 

The National Forest Policy is admirably stated above the signature 
of Shri Vishnu Sahay in the Gazette of India Extraordinary, Ministry 
of Food and Agriculture, Resolution No. 13. 1/52. F., dated New Delhi, 
the 12th May, 1952. Boards of Control and Committees will doubtless 
closely study and be guided by this valuable document. 

40. Forest Offences. — Burden of proof that an animal is killed 
outside government forest should be on the defence (Monteith); the 
burden of proving any fact which would be a defence to a charge 
of contravening the game laws and rules should be upon the person 
charged (Hubback). 

41. Forest Staff (Vanishing Assets).— 4 C, p. 291: "...it is the 
weighty responsibility of the department in control (,in reserved forests 
and more remote tracts) to protect the fauna and flora of those areas." 
Also see 4B, 'Conferences', 'India' — Report to I.U.P.N. 

42. Forest Villages. — Regarding Assam, A. J. W. Milroy was of 
opinion that formation of Forest Villages should be cautiously pro- 
ceeded with. Comment. — Mostly, some forest villages aie necessary to 
the department for work in the forests. Generally speaking, the fewer 
the villages and hutments in the forests the greater benefit to the game. 

43. Game. — It is common knowledge that game continues to 
decrease in most areas, so no need to take up space by quotations. 
In his Conclusion [3 (b)] A. A. Dunbar Brander has declared: "I 
consider that action in India is urgently required, parhaps more so 
than in Africa." That was nearly twenty years ago. For causes and 
reasons for destruction of game the contributions. 3 (a) to (3 /') should 
be studied. 9 C(iii), p. 5, Kenya: "In many cases there is a clamour 
to get rid of game without any certainty that any good will be attained 
thereby" (Keith Caldwell). For definition of 'game' see Section 2 of 
the Bombay Act, 1951, and connected Schedules. 

44. Hailey National Park. — .This, the first of its kind to be estab- 
lished in India, was declared under the United Provinces National 
Parks Act, 1935. Area is about 125 sq. miles and description in 
Vol. 49, pp. 749-752 (1949). 

20 



THE SUMMARISED INDEX 21 

45. Headmen of Villages. — R. C. Morris in 3(g), para 9: "It is 
suggested that a Monegar, Village Munsiff, or Village Headman should 
be heavily fined if a case of illicit possession of arms is discovered in 
his village or villages under his jurisdiction. There is not the slightest 
doubt that every Village Munsiff or Headman knows exactly what 
arms there are in the village or villages under his jurisdiction, whether 
licensed or unlicensed." 9C(ii), p. 48: "One of the main obstacles 
to the efficient control of poaching is the lack of co-operation by the 
Chiefs who, since they receive their traditional 'rake-off' of meat, 
have some interest in ignoring 1 it" (Keith Caldwell). 

46. India (Official Report to I. U.P.N.).— 5 (a), p. 337, 1950: 
"I. General Situation: ...With regard to animals, the general situa- 
tion is gloomy. Some species of animal like the lion and the rhino- 
ceros are practically on the verge of extinction. The protection 
granted to them is not on a sufficiently extensive or large scale, nor is 
there any central organization to effectively enforce laws governing 
the destruction or protection of animals. Individual States have their 
own laws, which concern mainly the restriction of the shooting season 
and the number of animals that may be shot. Poaching is extensive. 
The burden of enforcing game laws falls on the already heavily 
overworked forest staff, which is not in adequate strength to do 
justice to this aspect of work in addition to its own normal functions. 
A number of game sanctuaries, usually small, exist in the forests of some 
of the States." 

47. India (Wild Life Reserves). — 5 (b) Assam: Country and 
forests described — Measures to preserve wild life related — Wild ' Life 
Sanctuaries listed and described — Outlook for the Future — Schedule 
of particulars of wild life Sanctuaries in Assam — Map of Assam. 
5 (c) Bihar: Map of the Province — Condition better than in the past 
yet very unsatisfactory — More and bigger sanctuaries wanted — In 
absence of a Game Department problem of poaching very difficult — 
Too many persons exempted from taking shooting licences — If this 
abolished revenue obtainable for a Game Staff — Main problem is one 
of management — Some species are very near extinction — Forest Officers 
subject to too many transfers — A trained Game Forester necessary for 
each Sanctuary ... Less than 100 tigers in whole Province and species 
may be totally exterminated in a few decades — Game birds need more 
protection in the shooting rules — Outside the forests they get no 
protection — Nilgai have survived through religious sentiment (this 
likely to vanish through action in Saurashtra informing the people 
the species is not bovine). Forest revenue exceeds fifty lakhs; Budget 
for Game Improvement for entire Province less than Rs 3,500. 
Comment. — The whole of this Report is worthy of speedy and serious 
attention by the State Wild Life Committee soon materialising under 
the Central Government Resolution of 4th April 1952. 5 (d) TJttar 
Pradesh: This reference supports the need for addition of Staff to 
the Forest Department for enforcement of laws and rules within the 
forests generally and sanctuaries in particular. The D.F.O. states, 
concerning the Kansrao Sanctuary, "Maintenance: There is no special 
staff for the maintenance and supervision of the sanctuary. The 
territorial staff is expected to look after it which is not a satisfactory 
arrangement..." 5(e) Burma: This reference is to show that the 
recent extermination of the Manipur race of the thamin (Brow-antlered 
Deer) could have been prevented by timely action. Also as guide to 

?1 



22 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

the status of Rhinoceros sondaicus which vanished from India after 
1892. 

48. Insecticides. — 6(b): "Mr. Bernard called attention to the 
attempts being made in Switzerland to combat cockchafers, the dis- 
astrous effects of the too widespread use. of insecticides, and the 
efforts to draw the attention of the persons and the authorities 
concerned to this danger." At the present time (November 1952) 
there is correspondence in the "Field" newspaper concerning the 
alleged harm to stock of partridges in some parts due to use of 
insecticides among crops. 

49. I.U.P.N. and I.O.P.N.— See p. 4 of Prater's Introduction- 
see 'Protection of Nature'. 

50. Interest (Real Interest).— 4 C, p. 290: "There is, it is submitted, 
urgent need in India for creating and stimulating, among the educated 
classes in particular, a real interest in the wild life of the country." 
Para 4: "In power politics a well informed public opinion is the 
world's greatest security. So also in regard to wild life; real and 
correctly informed interest on the part of the public is its greatest 
protection," Para 5. Duty of the Public and the Governments: 
"...The public also have their responsibilities, and unless these are 
discharged by the people no amount of effort on the part of the 
government can have adequate results. So also in the matter of wild 
life protection and preservation. It is the obvious duty of both 
Central and Provincial Governments to employ all possible means of 
propaganda for the instruction and enlightenment of the people in 
their responsibilities as outlined above." [The 3 (iii) function of the 
Board of Control provides that the above shall now be carried out.] 
See 'Nature Study' and 'Museums'. See 'Public Opinion'. 

51. Kashmir.— 5 (j), p. 861: "Of the Kashmir Stag it was 
reported in February 1951 that since the 1947 trouble began there has 
been rapid disappearance of the species from localities where it was 
formerly abundant..." If the Recommendations in the Report of 
the Bombay Society's Delegation (October 1952) on the subject of 
Game Preservation in Kashmir are thoroughly implemented the 
status of the Kashmir Stag in the sanctuaries and reserves should 
be assured. Of Kashmir it is reported at the present time that there 
is depletion of the number of chukor. See 'Bears'. 

52. Kruger National Park. — 4 C, para 1 8 (a) : The want of water 
in the Kruger Park in 1948 is an object lesson for the need of a very 
long view regarding the vital question of water-supply to all parts of 
Park or Sanctuary areas. "Oryx", pp. 187-189, December 1951: 
A public appeal had to be made to provide water for the wild life of the 
Park. For the Borehole Fund £ 10,000 was subscribed and £ 3,862 
for the General Water Fund. There are most interesting observations 
as to experiments made, and the liking and disliking of wild animals 
to the 'water provided for them. 4 G, para 14 0) Water: "For this 
a very long view is necessary. There must be ample and perennial 
supply for all species; and for the Park Establishments and the 
Visitors. Tanks, or sheets of water, or marshes are a very great 
asset." See 'Water'. 

53. Lion. — 5 (/): These references give full information. A 
Census taken in 1950 found the Gir Forest contained 227 of the species. 
A suggestion is that the panther in the Gir should be sufficiently 
'controlled' to better the food supply of the lion. At time of writing 

22 



THE SUMMARISED INDEX 23 

(21-11-1952) newspaper report says six lions have been killed by some 
persons. If this has come about through the animals straying outside 
for food (domestic stock) it indicates every effort necessary to foster 
and improve the food supply within the forest. 

The Central Board of Control has resolved (see Appendix "B") 
that there should be formed another area besides the Gir Forest to 
provide for the preservation of the lion in India. In this connection 
it is remarked that to ensure success prior elimination of all tigers and 
panthers in the selected area should be effected and the stock of deer 
and wild pigs fully established and conserved against man. 

54. Lands.— 3 (a) S. H. Prater: "Land under cultivation provides 
at once the opportunity for a clash between the interests of Man and 
the Animal. Areas under cultivation are extending to the utrnost 
limit. It is imperative these areas must be protected from wild animals. 
That an intensive development of the agricultural resources of a 
country may accompany a sane and adequate policy for the conserva- 
tion of its wild life is shown by the measures taken to this end by all 
progressive nations." 4B, pp. 609-611: In regard to wild life con- 
servation land can be classified in five main categories: Urban, Agri- 
cultural, Waste, Private, Forests. The position in regard to each of 
these is dealt with. Para 41 of 4 G adds to the above categories 
all the lands taken up by government in connection with multi-purpose 
projects, canals, water-supply lakes, grass farms, railways, etc., all of 
which could be managed under central guidance to largely add to 
amenities for 'wild life'. See 'Definitions'. 

55. Laws and Rules.— See under 'Forest Act and Rules'; also 
3 (a), p. 9, where is mentioned the Wild Life Commission of Malaya, 
Vol. II, published in 1932; this contains much that is valuable to the 
purposes of the Boards and Committees now being set up all over 
India. It contains the complete draft of a Wild Life Preservation 
Enactment comprising 73 Sections which could with any necessary 
modifications serve as a model for the framing of necessary Legislation 
in India. It would seem that this material was lost sight of when 
the Bombay Wild Birds and Wild Animals Protection Act, 1951, was 
being drafted. There is also at pp. 148-153 the Draft of an Enactment 
respecting National Parks. The Volume is the work of the late 
Mr. T. R. Hubback who was the Commissioner appointed to inquire 
into the Protection of the Wild Life in Malaya. The two Drafts will 
by now have been enacted and become law. The Bombay Act 
recognises other machinery than the Forest Department alone to provide 
for protection of wild animals. See 4 B, pp. 609-610 for the text of 
Act VIII of 1912. 

56. Legislation. — In the last mentioned reference is a suggested 
Amendment to Act VIII of 1912. References 9 A (i) to (iv); 9 B (i); 
9 C (i) give some of the principal Legislation enacted to our purpose 
in India, Ceylon and Kenya. "Orj.v", December 1951, p. 175; 
"Drafting Game Legislation is a very difficult and tricky thing. . .Game 
Legislation is full of pitfalls and we have all fallen into them at some 
time or other" (Keith Caldwell). For this reason special care is 
necessary in regard to 'definitions'— the wording of them, and inclusion 
of „ all such that are necessary. All the contributors urge legislation 
against commercialization of game. 9 C (iii), p. 16: "The essential of 
Game Preservation is the prevention of 'commercialization' of game." 
4B: Sellers should be deprived of their markets through effectively 

23 , 



24 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

enforced legislation. See 'Trade'; see M. S. Randhawa. 4F: 'Pro- 
tective Legislation'. "To prevent killing for profit is one of the key 
notes of conservation" (Hubback). See 'Close Seasons' — Birds; see 
'Trapping and Snaring'. 

57. Licences and Fees. — In 3 (c) Monteith rightly remarks that 
the shooting licence should issue for a sufficient fee. Comment. — For 
small game shooting the fee need not be large; but for big game 
it should be more. If a sportsman can afford all the many expenses 
of big game shooting he can be reasonably required to pay a sufficient 
fee to reimburse to government, through a Game Fund, some of the 
many expenses necessary to provide, the sport he seeks. It is suggested 
that the Royalty system of Assam could be reasonably adopted 
throughout India. The logical French arrangement by which a 
'contribution' is automatically levied with every shooting licence and 
other fee would fall on the right shoulders and much aid the Game 
Fund. One rupee on every small game licence and rod-fishing licence; 
more on big game licences, elephant catching licences and any other 
licences of the kind, would not hurt the licencees. All such contribu- 
tions would be ear-marked for Game Fund and not diverted to any 
other purpose. See 'Finances — Wild Life Fund'. See 'Royalties'. 
Comment.— It may be borne in mind that, while asking sportsmen to 
make reasonable contribution towards conservation of game in their 
interests, the cost of licences and fees should not be such as to 
discourage or cause dissatisfaction. See 'Sportsmen'. 

58. Magistrates. — Comment: Several of the expert contributors 
to Prater's Series remark that sentences by Magistrates are too lenient 
in poaching and other cases. See 'Motor Vehicle'; see 'Rewards'. 
9 C (iii), p. 10: "Breaches of the Game Laws are always hard to 
detect, and the only way of stopping illegal killing is by infliction of 
such heavy fines that the poacher says to himself, I don't suppose I shall 
be caught, but if I am a £ 50 or £ 100 fine is not such fun — so I won't 
try it. We got this principle fairly well established in Kenya after 
a battle many years ago" (Keith Caldwell). "It is very necessary when 
attempting to conserve wild life to make the law respected by 
deterrent punishment when offenders are convicted" (Hubback). See 
4G, para 38(h); see 'Enforcement'. 

59. Manuals. — Compilation of Manuals for management of Wild 
Life, National Parks and Sanctuaries will be necessary. 

60. Markhor. — 8 (c): "Markhor (in Kashmir) are rapidly 
decreasing everywhere they exist, and are vanishing from the Pjr 
Panjal and the Kaj-i-Nag. Astor is bad, Chitral worse, and the 
North-West Frontier Province will soon lose the last of the Straight- 
horned race" (1928). 

61. Motor Vehicle (Use of for Shooting). — Comment: All the 
literature declaims against use of the motor vehicle for shooting or 
as aid to killing game. Abuses of the rules in this regard are notorious 
and a matter of public knowledge. The Bombay Act [ref. 9 A (iv)] 
prohibits the use of Motor Car: 

Section 17. (1) No person shall hunt any game from or by means 
of a mechanically propelled vehicle on water or 
land, or by aircraft. 
(2) No person shall use a motor car, motor launch 
or aircraft, for the purpose of killing, driving or 
stampeding game. 

?4 



THE SUMMARISED INDEX 25 

The Sub-Section (2) should have provided against the motor cycle, 
and the pedal cycle, etc., by insertion after 'car', the words 'or any 
wheeled vehicle'. Otherwise, would not the user of motor cycle, 
bicycle, tonga, ekka, jutka, bullock cart escape conviction? Quite 
rightly has Captain Keith Caldwell observed that Game Legislation is 
full of pitfalls. 

62. Motor Vehicle {Confiscation). — Comment: Special reference is 
made to paragraph 28 (c) of 4 G. Unless the menace of the motor 
vehicle is faced, the illegal use of it in connection with game will 
continue. A lorry-load of bison or other game meat is on its way 
to the coast: Should not the vehicle be liable to confiscation by the 
duly authorised convicting Court? This 'shocking predator', the 
"Mighty Jeep" and its many relatives is at work in many parts of 
India. The Excise Law provides for the confiscation by convicting 
Magistrates of motor vehicles used to contravene the excise laws and 
rules. The game laws should do the same. Press Notice of the 
2nd December 1952, of the Nilgiri Game Association Annual Report, 
1951-52: "Visitors to the Nilgiris during the season used certain areas 
for the pursuit of organised nocturnal poaching." Here is an instance 
where confiscation of even one motor car would definitely halt such 
poaching. See 4 G, paras 28 (b) to (/). 

63. Motor Vehicle (on Forest Roads). — In 3 (e) Champion draws 
attention to need of control and suggests measures. Also see 4 C, 
para 11 (b). Comment. — The Ceylon Government found it necessary 
to include in the Amendment Act No. 38 of 1948 a new Section 63 A 
to provide for placing of road barriers and stopping' and searching 
of vehicles for discovery of firearms. All this on roads running 
alongside a Strict Natural Reserve, National Park or Intermediate 
Zone. All conversant with conditions in India are well aware that 
measures similar to these, and as advocated by . F. W. Champion, 
are very necessary. There will be many objectors to these ideas, and 
to power being given to the Courts to confiscate the motor vehicle 
on conviction of an offence against the game laws. Such legislature 
is logical and reasonable. The main point is that, if poaching offences 
are to be halted such action as outlined is necessary to achieve the 
object. 

64. Museums. — 7 (iii): The Governor of Bombay in his Address 
to the Society's General Meeting on the 17th March 1930, remarked: 
"One very important way of arousing that interest, in wild life which 
is its only true protection lies in establishing such Museums as this. 
'This' being the Prince of Wales' Museum at Bombay. Also see 
4G. paras 7 and 8 regarding 'Peoples' Parks and Zoological Parks'. 
In 4F, M. S. Randhawa remarks that: "The Local Educational Reserve 
is the counterpart of the college museum and the laboratory". 

65. Mysore State. — See 3 (h) by Phythian-Adams. For close 
seasons and other information regarding birds of both Mysore and 
Bombay States see 4 D. 

66. National Parks. — For National Parks in America and other 
countries see 3 (a), pp. 3-4; see 'Banjar', 'Kruger', 'Hailey'; and 
4 G, paras 6 (a), (b) for National Parks in Assam. Paragraphs 1 3 and 
18 of 4 G should be seen, and 4 F referred to for Randhawa's remarks 
about National Parks in India. 4 G contains a number of paragraphs 
regarding definition, formation, selection, location, management and 
other matters concerning National Parks, and other Parks also. It is 

25 



26 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

an axiom thai no portion of any bit of land which might possibly be of 
use some day for human needs should be ear-marked for inclusion in 
a national park. National Parks, Sanctuaries and Reserves to be of 
any use must be properly guarded. [Keith Caldwell, 9 C (hi), p. 16]. 
See 'Reserves'. M. S. Randhawa (4F): "Nature conservation and 
conservation of soil, forests, grass-land and water are intimately 
connected and fundamental to forestry, game preservation and manage- 
ment of national parks." Royal National Parks of Kenya, Report for 
1951, p. 5: "We are more than ever convinced that it is impossible 
to preserve wild animals in perpetuity, in any area that contains any 
permanent human inhabitants" (Chairman of Trustees, August 1952). 
For National Parks Acts in India see 9 A (ii) and (iii). For Draft of 
an Enactment Respecting National Parks in Malaya see pp. 149-158 
of Wild Life Commission of Malaya, Vol. II, 1932. This may have 
become Law. No information to hand at time of writing. See last 
para, 'Reserves'. 

67. Nature Study. — It is presumed that this subject is within the 
purview of function 3 (iii) of the constituted Central Board for Wild 
Life. For many years the Bombay Natural History Society have made 
efforts to establish in Bombay the need for Nature Study. The 
subject has been considered in a number of Editorials and Proceedings. 
Vol. 30, pp. 211-212 (1924): "The Boy Scouts and Girl Guides 
Associations have an unparalleled opportunity for arousing an interest 
and active love of Nature in children." The Nature Study movement 
stagnated, but after a lapse of 25 years the Bombay Government 
became convinced in 1949 of the usefulness of the Society's Scheme 
and sanctioned the needed finance, so the talks continued in English, 
Marathi and Gujerathi. Observations by Mr. Prater at p. 11 of 3 (a) 
may be seen. 

At Poona, in 1924, a Nature Study Club was started by Miss Payne, 
Inspectress of Girls' Schools, and produced a Magazine " Out of 
Doors". The Bombay Society welcomed the Club: "We hope the good 
example of the Poona Nature Study Club will be followed by towns 
and cities all over India." The hopes of the Society have not been 
realised. 

9 C (ii), p. 26, Uganda: "...small game and birds are of educa- 
tional value for nature study which is being encouraged as much as 
possible in schools." P. 28, Southern Rhodesia: "Roads and rest 
camp accommodation is providing opportunities for school children 
to visit Reserves and augment that part of the school curriculum 
dealing with fauna, an opportunity they are taking advantage of as is 
.shown by the heavy booking of rest camps during the school holidays." 
. 5 (/), p. 864, 'Education in Schools', Reference made to: "The Youth 
of to-day must become the conservationists of to-morrow"; to the 
1930 Address by Sir Frederick Sykes, Governor of Bombay: "We 
should aim at teaching the children to appreciate the value of wild 
life"; to the Address, December 1949, by the Governor of Ceylon 
to the Ceylon Game and Fauna Protection Society: "There is need 
for extensive propaganda _ and education. . .to convince the younger 
generation in the schools that they will, and must be. the future 
custodians of wild life" (to which may be added 'and of the forests 
also'). At the present time (1952) the I. U.P.N, is making considerable 
efforts in (his direction. Special lessons for the use of educators and 
the use of teachers and pupils in primary and secondary schools of 

26 



THE SUMMARISED INDEX 27 

a number of countries are being issued. "In spite of its importance 
to mankind the theme of these lessons is little known or totally ignored 
by contemporary nations" writes the Secretary-General. See 'Edu- 
cation". 

68. Nilgiris. — - See 8 (a) and (b); also 'Associations' and 'Motor 
Vehicles — Confiscation'. 

69. Nomadic Tribes.— 3 '(c): 3 (/); 4 B, p. 604; 4 G, paras 27 
and 32 may be referred to regarding the damage by these people 
to the National Asset of antelope, gazelle and game birds outside 
the forests./ 

The Brochure containing the Speeches delivered at the Conference 
held in Delhi on the 7th, 8th and 9th June, 1952, to discuss Problems 
dealing with the Scheduled Tribes (also known as Nomadic Tribes) 
and the Scheduled Areas, and issued with the compliments of Shri L. M. 
Shrikant, Commissioner for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, 
will be of greatest value to Wild Life Preservation Boards and Com- 
mittees which have before them the difficult duty of concerting measures 
to end all Trapping and Snaring — outside the Forests especially but 
also inside the Forests. This question is intimately linked with 
commercialization and marketing of game and other cognate matters. 

70. Obiter Dicta.— 4 G, paragraphs 38 (a) to (q) contain many 
such. See 'Definitions'. 

71. Orissa. — 4B, p. 605: Remarks upon the terrible destruction 
to wild life throughout the mostly hilly and forested country com- 
prising the Eastern States from the Godavari River as far as Bengal. 
See under 'Associations' for the Orissa Sportsmen's Club. 

72. Parks. — There are various kinds of 'Parks'. A number 
exist in, or near, some cities and the larger Municipalities. In course 
of time many more such will be established. See 4 C, para 12. At 
the present time (October 1952) it is notified in the newspapers that the 
Madras State proposes to collect information from Village Panchayats 
about opening parks and gardens in their areas. All these will 
naturally afford protection to birds and smaller mammals. The 
Bombay National Parks Act, 1950 is not designed to provide National 

• Parks for wild life alone. By the definition, ' Park' includes a garden, 
and the purposes of the Act as stated in Section 4 show that the 
contemplated Parks are what are termed 'Dual Purposes Parks' in 
first few paragraphs of 4 G. Section 20 (2) of the Bombay Act 
provides for protection of flora and fauna, and control of predators, 
etc. For National Parks for Wild Life see 4B, p. 615; 4 C, para 13; 
relevant portions of 4 F; paragraphs 9 to 14 and other relevant 
parts of 4 G. For Peoples' Parks see 4 C, para 12 and 4 G, para 8. 
Some of the Peoples' Parks may have lesser status of Municipal Parks 
which are at present more areas for botanical conservation and 
recreation of the people than for wild life. 

73. Poachers and Poaching.—" Poaching is extensive" states the 
India Report to the l.U. P.N. See observations of the expert contri- 
butors in the Wild Animals of India Series [3 (a) to 3 (/')]. See 'Guns 
and Greed' 4 B, p. 607, and 4 G, para 28, the whole of which may 
be read. "Effective steps should be taken to check unlicensed and 
unrestricted methods of killing and capture" declares the Resolution 
of the International Forestry Conference held at Mysore in April 1949. 
See 4 G, para 39 for full text of the Resolution. 9 C (ii) : p. 24: "The 
chief problem is poaching by natives (East and Central Africa) ... the, 

27 



28 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

only real remedy is the increase of staffs in the various game depart- 
ments." Regarding this in India see 'India — Wild Life Reserves' — 
Both Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Also see lines in italics under 
'Conferences'. I. U.P.N. 'Bulletin", Vol. I, No. 3, May 1952, Editorial 
Note: "Recent developments in the field of weapons have only 
increased man's killing power and his 'advantage' over nature itself. 
More and more game will only be able to survive in so far as man 
himself is both willing and able to set a limit to killing." Linked 
with poaching is the prevention of the commercialization of game — 
including game birds — and all products of the animal. At the present 
time all snooting rules and laws prohibit use of artificial light "for 
shooting (man-eaters excepted) but it is notorious that use of electric 
torches and devices is universal. How is this to be stopped? The 
finding of a solution is a problem for the Boards and Committees. 
"In British Columbia, the use of a light as an aid to shooting is treated 
as the worst offence under the game laws and no exception is made 
whatsoever" (Hubback). See 'Enforcement'; see 'TTade'. 

74. Porcupines — Champion [3 (c)] specially mentions the porcu- 
pine as being very destructive (to human interests) Randhawa also 
mentions the porcupine; and see 'Biology'. Comment. — It is common 
knowledge that the porcupine does much damage to various crops, 
fruits, vegetables, young plantations in reserved forests. Inside the 
forests it is the business of the forest staff through various methods, 
and rewards. Outside it is business of the crop owner. Cyanide gas 
could be used in favourable situations. 

75. Protection and Preservation. — 4 A: Principles of Wild Life 
Conservation by Theodore Hubback is of great value for conservation, 
protection and preservation in the main aspects. All of this, and 
4 F by Randhawa will doubtless be studied by Boards and Committees. 
Address by the Governor of Bombay in 1930: "We are confronted 
with the almost insurmountable difficulty of persuading the masses to 
have any regard for the principles of wild life conservation." Here 
is another problem for the Boards and Committees. One of the 
answers will be 'Propaganda' and whole-hearted aid by editors and 
journalists. See 'Museums'; see 'Nature Study'. 

76. Protection of Nature.— See I.U.P.N. All that the Union 
stands for and all about it is in the article by Lt.-Col. R. W. Burton 
contributed to "Science and Culture", Calcutta, May 1950, and 
reproduced in Society's Journal, Vol. 49, pp. 809-814, December 1950. 
6 (b), p. 11: Inaugural Address at The Hague on 20th September 1951 
by Mr. van der Goes van Naters: "The Protection of Nature has passed 
from the concept of a simple establishment of reserve areas to that 
of a rational management of an entire region, in full harmony with 
natural laws. It is mixed with town planning, with the science of 
land utilization, even with the social sciences, to become more and 
more a chapter of human ecology." 

77. Public Opinion. — At the present time public opinion regarding 
wild life preservation and conservation is almost non-existent in India. 
It is only through public opinion that wild life can be saved and 
preserved through all the future years. "Laws are enacted, rules are 
made and forgotten, for there is no continuity of official enforcement 
and no public opinion to keep them in mind" (4 B, p. 607). All 
through the literature the need for public opinion is expressed. At 
the AUTndia Delhi Conference, 1935, it was declared that: "Indian 

79 



TJSB SUMMARISED INDEX 29 

Wild Life could only be saved through Public Opinion and that 
legislation, however efficient, could do little in matters like these 
without the whole-hearted support of the public." At this eighteen • 
years later date there is yet no public opinion that matters. An 
essential to efforts of Boards and Committees giving effect to function 
3 (iii) is the widest publicity through government channels and the 
newspapers, and an imperative help is the whole-hearted aid by 
Editors and Journalists. On the 16th September 1952 the Vice-President 
of India said: "It is the 'duty of the Press to produce the climate of 
opinion which would help the Government to achieve its objectives. 
It is possible for the Press to educate the people in the ideals and 
purposes which we have set for ourselves." 4 A, p. 101: "It is 
legitimate to presume that there being many reasons for the 
continuance of wild life in most parts of the world, proper steps for its 
conservation should be taken, therefore one would expect' to receive 
the support and approval of the public for any sound policy of 
conservation." 

The feeling among the masses that the movement for the protec- 
tion of wild life is not for them, but for the well-to-do among the 
people has to be dispelled. That could be largely brought about through 
the formation of Zoological Parks, Dual- purposes Parks, and Museums 
attached to them. In that way millions of the people would be 
attracted to see the interesting spectacle of wild life that is their 
heritage, and which should be preserved and handed on to future 
generations. In all this the Press could play a great part; and in course 
of time a correct public opinion would be, gradually formed. See 
'Education'; 'Museums'; 'Nature Study'; 'Parks';, and 4G for 
Zoological Parks, Peoples' Parks; see 4 B, pp. 606 and 618 for propa- 
ganda methods. 

78. Remedial Measures (Alphabetically arranged). — . 
Artificial light, prohibition as aid for shooting, 
Associations, formation of, 
Arms Act and Rules enforcement, 
Arms, Crop guns withdrawal when no crops, 
Arms, check to increase, 

Co-ordination of wild life policy through central authority, 
Enforcement of Laws and Rules, 
Forest Establishments, increase of for enforcement, 
Finances, Wild Life Fund, 
Licences, Issuing Authority to consult D.F.O., 
Magistrates, should inflict sufficient penalty, 
Markets, all trade of wild life in any form to cease, 
Motor vehicles, prohibition as aid in any way for shooting, 
Nature Study to be encouraged, Films, Lectures and Lite- 
rature arranged, 
Netting, pitting, use of dead-falls to be prohibited, 
Outside forests, control to be arranged and enforced, 
Public Opinion, formation of, 
Parks and Sanctuaries, formation of, 
Shooting Rules: complete overhaul, 
Sportsmen: genuine sportsmen to be encouraged, 
Tanneries to be controlled, 
Trade: all commercialization to be ended, 
Trapping and Snaring to be ended. 

29 



30 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

79. Reserves.— See 4.F. M. S. Randhawa: National Nature 
Reserves and Local Educational Reserves. 'The purposes of the 
former, which would be within National Parks, are given by the Wild 
Life Conservation Special Committee of England and Wales and are 
applicable to India also' .says Randhawa, who lists the purposes (a) 
to (c). The latter link with Nature Study and teaching of biology. 
Management of Nature Reserves. 6 (6), p. 65. Lucie H. Pluygers (in 
collaboration with V. Westhoff and M. F. Morzer Bruyas), J (e): 
"The boundaries of a Reserve should be well chosen and preferably 
be natural ones. Animal wanderings, e.,?., seasonal migration beyond 
reserve boundaries will occur when reserves are too small" (Cahalane, 
Harroy, Caldwell). 6(b), p. 68. Victor H. Cahalane, Chief Biology 
Branch, U.S. National Park Service, Washington D.C., U.S.A.: "If 
the parks are to function gs natural reservations their animal life 
must be subject to the least possible regulation by man. Park manage- 
ment policy permits interference only to prevent extermination of 
a species threatened either directly by falling below a safe minimum, 
or indirectly by rising to such heights as to menace its food supply. . . 
When the more effective animal predators are not sufficient in natural 
numbers, action must sometimes be taken within the sanctuaries in 
order to avert catastrophic reduction of vegetation." 6 (b), p. 88. 
"Wild Life Protection Zones", by G. Dennier de la Tour, Argentine: 
"The real aim of 'Wild Life Protective Zones' will be accomplished 
only when they completely encircle all special wild life reserves and 
when they are wide enough to avoid everywhere a sudden transition 
from a protected area to a non-protected one." Nature Reserves of 
sufficient extent are necessary within national parks to serve as breeding 
reservoirs for both animals and birds. These should not be accessible 
to visitors. See 'National Parks'. 

80. Rewards. — The literature considers that rewards for killing 
carnivora within the forests are unnecessary; that wild dog destruction 
rewards may be given and range up to not more than Rs. 15 ; that 
Magistrates should as a matter of course — except for definite reasons 
to the contrary — award to forest subordinates the rewards which the 
rules allow. It is desirable that rewards be given to Headmen of 
villages for good work by them in connection with conservation within 
their area. 7 (ii), p. 362: "Rewards are far too rarely given, and very 
rarely indeed in poaching cases; the detection and capture of a poacher 
who is armed often involves danger and there is no class of forest 
crime the detection of which merits to a greater extent the granting of 
a reward." 

81. Rhinoceros. — Assam by E. P. Gee [5 (b)] may be seen. The 
protection of the species is now the special care of the Assam and 
Bengal Governments and Forest Departments. The species may or 
may not survive in Nepal, as to which full text of 5 (e) may be seen. 
The species needs continued strict protection at all times, and all 
through the future years. 

82. Roads.— For need to have check on vehicles entering forests 
see suggestion by F. W. Champion in 3 (e). See also para 11 (b) of 
4 C and Section 63 A of the 1949 Amendment to the Ceylon Fauna 
and Flora Protection Ordinance. Similar measures are needed in 
India. 

83. Royalties. — This item is included in the list of suggested 
receipts into a Wild Life Fund — see 4 B, p. 617. There is provision 

30 



THE SUMMARISED INDEX 31 

for Royalties in the Assam Shooting Rules, and this sensible arrange- 
ment might well be introduced in Shooting Rules of all States and 
Unions. See 'Funds'; 4G, paras 29 (a) and (b); and 'Licences and 
Fees'. 

84. Salt-licks. — Salt-licks are closely linked with ecological study. 
" . . .It must be a part of any vigorous policy of wild life conservation 
to preserve salt-licks, and if they are recognised, as they should be 
recognised, as important adjuncts to a congenial environment for 
many species, then laws to preserve them, and machinery to enforce 
those laws become imperative." 4C, paras 10 and 19 may be seen. 
"Because of their attraction to animals salt-licks should be guarded 
from poachers in every possible way." 

85. Sanctuaries. — Monteith, 3 (c): "Sanctuaries, unless of manage- 
able size as provided for under the 'Block' system in reserved forests 
may very well in the end prove to be no sanctuaries at all." References 
for the subject are: 4 B, p. 615; 4 C, paras 14, 15, 18, 19; 4 G, 
paras 23, 24, 25; Chapter IV of 9 A (iv). There are sanctuaries of 
several kinds and several purposes as mentioned in 4 C, 14. 

86. Shark. — This salt-water predator is mentioned in 3 (a) and 
4 A in connection with insulin as just one of the many instances in 
which it has been demonstrated by science that wild life has perhaps 
quite unknown and unexpected uses to mankind. 

87. Siwaliks. — 4 F: . . . A well-known instance of result of neglect 
as to management of hills by conserving the soil canopy... In this 
connection should be seen the article by M. S. Randhawa mentioned 
under 'Desiccation'; the complete text of 5 (/;); .and the sub-leader 
in the "Madras Mail" newspaper of 16th October 1952. See 'Dis- 
afforestation'. 

88. Species in Danger.— Since 1947 the Manipur race of the 
Brow-antlered Deer has become exterminated. Lion and rhinoceros 
have been on the danger list. At present both species have been 
saved, but continued vigilance is necessary. The Great Indian Bustard 
is in danger, and will certainly become extinct unless essential steps 
taken to prevent it. The suggested measure is stated in 4 G, para 
32(c). 4B, p. 604 may be seen. 

89. Sport.— 5 (j): "What is sport? It can be said that all sport 
is governed by unwritten laws, and the general tendency is to give the 
animal a sporting chance to escape, also to make the sport as great 
a test as possible consistent with the object in view — the death of the 
quarry. It may also be defined as measured by difficulty in achieving 
success." 

90. Sportsmen. — 4 A: "The true sportsman gradually becomes 
the champion of wild creatures..." July 1952, "Field", Editorial: 
"For generations it has been widely accepted that the sportsman is 
the best friend of his quarry." All through the literature opinion is 
expressed that the presence of sportsmen in shooting areas is one of the 
greatest curbs on the activities of the poacher. See 4 C, para 20; 
see 'Orissa'; see 'Licences and Fees'. 

9L The State.— 4 A: "The State alone can and must take the 
responsibility for a protective organization which will command the 
interest of all mankind in its moral, social, economical and cultural 
development; and thus the political aspect of the question becomes 
apparent" (Speech made by Prince Leopald of Belgium in London, 
18th November 1933). 4 C, para 5: "it is the obvious duty of both 

31 



32 the Preservation of wild Life in ihdiA 

Central and Provincial Governments to employ all possible means of 
propaganda for the instruction and enlightenment of the people in 
their responsibilities such as outlined above" (Public health — food^ 
erosion — drink, etc.). 9 C (ii), p. 27: "The game is part of the 
natural heritage of the country which it is incumbent on the present 
generation to preserve for posterity." 

92. Tourists.— 9 C (ii), p. 27, Uganda: "Game is likely to be 
a great attraction to tourists in Uganda." This could be the same 
in India. 

93. Trade. — 4 A: "An essential of game preservation is the 
prevention of the commercialization of game." 4 B, pp. 605-608 
may be seen regarding several aspects of this matter. Comment. — 
All the literature urges that trade in the products of wild animals 
(and birds) should cease. Who can deny that unless the sale and 
marketing — and the trapping and snaring — of game birds is ended 
throughout the country all these will vanish from the land ? What 
can be the argument in favour of continuance of this trade which is 
more and more rapidly eliminating this natural asset of the people 
and the nation ? Is it in any way necessary that game birds should 
be marketed for the food supplies of the people? Why should not 
a general law be passed to put an end to the trade? 

It can with reason be said that the trade will put an end to itself 
through the killing of all the creatures from which it derives its 
existence. Is that a desirable method ? 

94. Trapping and Snaring. — See 'Nomadic Tribes' for references. 
Comment. — This trapping and snaring question is one which needs 
to be fearlessly, thoroughly and energetically faced by all the Boards 
and Committees. Paragraph 'Time for Decision' (4B, pp. 605-606) 
and 'Brief for Action'-, p. 619 may be seen. In the 1938 U.P. Forest 
Department Schedule of close time the netting of antelope is prohibited 
for the whole year; also of peafowl, junglefowl, all the game birds and 
duck of all kinds. These provisions might well be adopted by all 
States and Unions. 

95. Value of Wild Life (Vanishing Assets). — Comment: It is 
through the many researches of science that the value of wild life is 
being increasingly realised by educated people in all countries of the 
world. From a material standpoint the value of wild life for the 
encouragement of tourist traffic is recognised as being of both direct 
and indirect value to the State. Prominent among the magnets for 
attracting tourists in India is the spectacle of wild life and its abundant 
interest for all classes of sportsmen and sightseers. But the assets 
of India in this field are vanishing by degrees, and will further and 
more speedily vanish unless well guarded and conserved through all 
possible means. All this is self-evident and needs no further pleading. 
It is apparent to everyone, to all the people, or could be made so 
through the many methods of propaganda available in these advancing 
days. Formation of zoological parks and dual-purposes parks would 
greatly help the cause. 

96. Vermin.— Schedule I of the Bombay Wild Birds and Wild 
Animals Protection Act, 1951, may be seen. It is suggested to Boards 
and Committees that all bats are not 'vermin', Some species are 
definitely beneficial to man. Only Fruit Bats should be classed as 
'vermin'. Similarly, all Birds of Prey are not inimical to interests of 
mankind. In his illustrated article " Birds of Prey and Their Uses " 

32 



THE SUMMARISED INDEX 33 

[Vol. 32, pp. 737-743 (1928)] C. H. Donald has shown that not more 
than five species of birds of prey in India are in any way harmful to 
man's interests. The real enemies of birds, he says, are rats, 
mongooses, larger snakes, monitor lizards, and to a smaller extent 
foxes, cats, and perhaps jackals. Besides mongooses, cats and foxes 
what keeps down rats and snakes ? The Birds of Prey. The article 
may be read by those who frame Schedules to an Act. As to Bats, 
see pp. 135-151 of 9A(v). 

97. Veterinary. — See 'Cattle Diseases'. 

98. Wardens.— See the Bombay Act, 1951 [9 A (iv)] for the 
system there laid down: The State Wild Life Advisory Board — The 
Wild Life Preservation Officer — Game Wardens. For suggested work 
of Wardens in National Parks and Sanctuaries see 4 C, paras 10 and 1 1 
and 4 G, paras 9, 10 and 16. See Hubback, 4 A. pp. 105-106. 

99. Water.— See 'KrugerPark "National Parks'— 'Sanctuaries'— 
and 4C, para 18 and 4G, 14 (j). See JII of ' Conservation--Multi- 
purpose Projects'. 6 (b), p. 51, E M. Nicholson, Nature Conservancy. 
Great Britain: "...great developments are taking place in human 
demand for water and in the extent of human interference with water- 
supply. Such problems as pollution of water and diversions of water 
courses for formation of reservoirs and other purposes- are obvious 
examples. Water tables may be lowered unintentionally by interference 
for some different purpose at a remote point, and such indirect effects 
which may remain unnoticed for several years may decisively alter the 
fauna and flora." (This has special application to some parts of 
India at present time.) 

100. Whipsnade.— See 'Parks' and 4 G, para 7. 

101. Wildfowl.— See 4 G, paras 31 (c), (d), (e). Migratory wild- 
fowl, it is suggested, should have same close season as indigenous 
water birds and so help the aim and object of wild life preservation 
by causing the shotgun to be laid aside (except by crop owners) 
throughout the country from 15th February to 30th September. 

102. Zoological Gardens and Wild Animal Trade (Zoologist). — 
6 (/>), pp. 97-99, "Problem of Zoological Gardens and Wild Life Trade", 
by F. J. Appelman, The Hague, Netherlands: "In fact the real threat 
to animal and bird life exists in the field and does not come from 
aviculturists and zoos, which means that it does not come from 
'controlled' animal dealers ... And we should never forget that for 
every few dozen zebras, giraffes and other antelopes we see shipped 
by traders there are many hundreds and even thousands killed in the 
field which are not known about." In Africa, the appointment of 
a qualified Zoologist to the various game Departments has been 
accepted in principle (Report on Visit" to East Africa, Captain Keith 
Caldwell, "Oryx", December 1951, p. 186). See 'Biology'. 

CONCLUSION 

The first consideration for erection of an edifice is the question of 
its foundations. The main foundation for the Control of Wild Life in 
its many aspects may be considered as based on Public Opinion — 
Finances-^-Adequate Staff — this latter being a Staff well trained, loyal, 
trustworthy, and having real enthusiasm and pride in the well-being of 
the flora and fauna under their charge. Among the many essentials for 
the superstructure are Real Interest, — Prevention of Commercialization 

3 33 



34 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

of Game (Trade) — Repression of Poaching — Enforcement of Laws 
and Rules. All these and other matters are dealt with in the hundred 
odd paragraphs of this Summarised Index and its References. 

It is the hope of the Compiler that everything set out in this 
volume will be considered as of some use to all concerned, and as 
aiding the cause in a practical manner. 

Acknowledgment for use of material is made to the editors of the 
Journal of the Fauna Preservation Society, the Journal of the Bombay 
Natural History Society, the Journal of the Ceylon Game and Fauna 
Protection Society, the Director of the Royal National Parks of Kenya 
and the Secretary-General of the International Union for the Protection 
of Nature; also to contributors to the several publications for use of 
their writings, all of which have been of much assistance. 

The thanks of all who will read and use this volume, and of the 
Compiler, are expressed to His Highness the Maharaja of Mysore 
without whose encouragement and generous financial assistance it would 
not have been written and published as an aid -to the cause of Wild 
Life in India. 



34 



THE WILD ANIMALS OF INDIA AND THE PROBLEM 
OF THEIR CONSERVATION 

3. (a) INTRODUCTTONAL SURVEY OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE 
AND THE PROBLEM* 

By S. H. Pratfr, O.B.E., C.M.Z.S. 

Curator, Bombay Natural History Society 

The Preservation of Wild Life in the Indian Empire 

The purpose of the present series of articles is to give a general 
account of the Mammals of the Indian Empire. 

For many years, the Bombay Natural History Society, through 
the medium of its Journal and other attractive publications, has 
endeavoured to create and stimulate in India an interest in the wild 
life of the country. 

The necessity for this interest, particularly among our educated 
classes, is becoming more and more evident with the passing of time. 
During the past, extensive undisturbed areas of primeval forest, jungle 
and desert gave safe harbourage to wild creatures, and provided sure 
guarantee of their survival. But changing conditions in the country, 
the gradual conquest of forests and waste lands, above all, the building 
of new roads and the radical improvement in methods and rapidity 
of transport have left few areas in the Peninsula of India which are 
free from intrusion by Man. These factors have had and are conti- 
nuing to have a disastrous effect on the wild life of the country. The 
danger to it has been accentuated in recent years by the enormous 
increase of firearms in use and by the inability of many of the 
Provincial Governments to enforce such laws as exist for /the protection 
of wild animals. 

In the past, similar conditions existed in most western countries.- 
Forests were cut down, streams polluted and their live-stock extermi- 
nated to meet the needs of the moment with no thought of the morrow. 
Even in tropical lands, gradually permeated with the spirit of material 
progress, primitive Nature has had to give way little by little to 
invading towns and settlements. Ruthless destruction of wild life and 
a prodigal wastage of natural resources have invariably preceded the 
establishment of material and prosperous civilization. Thus the 
magnificent animal life of many tropical and sub-tropical lands — and 
our country is no exception — has been driven to its ultimate retreat 
in fast dimi/iishing forests and is to-day threatened with utter exter- 
mination. ' 

Even the great marine animals of the sea — the whales and 
fur-bearing seals — have not escaped this menace of extinction. The 
solitudes and vast spaces of the ocean have not been able to shelter 
them from the rapacity of man. Like the terrestrial species, they 



* An Address given by Mr. S. H. Prater, m.l.C, C.m.Z.s., the Society's 
Curator, at the Jubilee Meeting of the Society held in Bombay on the 10th of 
August, 1933. 

This Series was published in Four Parts in the Journal of the Bombay 
Natural History Society. 

1 



36 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

have been subjected to ceaseless persecution, made more easy by the 
perfection of methods employed in the destruction of life — both human 
and animal 

A Changed Outlook and Some Reasons for it 

. But in recent years a gradual change has developed in Man's 
butlo.ok upon the t)omain of Kature. This change has been brought 
about partly by the spread of education and enlightenment. It is 
engendering a growing opposition to this . wanton destruction of life, 

towever much it may profit the destroyer. It is creating the more 
umane conception that it is the duty of Man' to see that the wild 
creatures of the world are not annihilated. But apart from humanity, 
Which in itself should impel Man to grant to lesser creatures the 
right of existence, there are other considerations which must influence 
him. 

The spirit of this age, with its urge for discovery and research, 
with its marked tendency towards the popularization of Science among 
the masses and the dissemination of its truths and discoveries is 
fostering a widespread and intelligent recognition of the immense value 
to man of the myriads of species, vegetable and animal, which share 
with him this Planet. To-day there is no educated man who does not 
realise that the realm of Nature provides Science with a vast and 
productive field for research. There is none who is not impressed 
with the belief that such research has given and will continue to give 
us results of great practical and educational value. 

There are numerous investigations, anatomical, physiological, 
ecological, geographic and evolutionary which can only be made by 
the study of animal life. While considerable data has been accumu- 
lated by the study of dead specimens in museums or of the living 
creatures in the laboratory, the 'whence, how and where' of his exist- 
ence which Man is seeking to discover cannot be discovered by these 
means alone. The study of the living creature under the natural 
conditions of its natural environment is equally important. 

It is also true that there are material considerations apart from 
scientific. We have been accustomed to look upon Beasts of Prey as 
creatures to be exterminated. But with a clearer understanding of the 
role they play in maintaining the balance of life we know now that 
even predatory animals have a distinct value. They are a controlling 
influence against over-population by species whose unchecked increase 
would adversely affect the interests of Man. On the other hand, 
there is the utilization for Man's benefit of animal products such aS 
furs, hides and horns which in themselves represent a valuable economic 
asset. Furs collected from all parts of the world and assembled in 
London for sale during the current year were assessed at a value of 
£3,000,000. There is necessity for conserving the sources of supply, 
which are not inexhaustible. Again, Science has" revealed and is 
continuing to reveal hitherto undreamed of possibilities in the uses of 
animal products and their employment in the treatment of human 
debility and disease. Who can say what products still remain to be 
discovered which will one day be of priceless value to Man ? Finally 
the wild life of a country is a source of sport and enjoyment to its 
people—It gives healthy recreation to all classes and is a constant 
attraction to visitors. It is also a definite source of income to the 
State because of the revenues realised from the sale of shooting 

2 



INTRODUCTIONS, SURVEY OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE & THE PROBLEM 37 

licenses and on the imports of sporting arms and ammunition. But 
obviously it is also an asset which may vanish without reasonable 
efforts for its conservation. For these and other reasons, it is now 
admitted generally, both in Europe and America, that the natural 
beauties of a country, its varied fauna and flora are an asset to its 
people, an asset to be protected and preserved to their own advantage 
and to the advantage of future generations. 

What Other Nations are Doing to Preserve Wild Life 

It is interesting and instructive for us in India to know what 
other nations are doing to preserve wild life. 

The movement for the protection of Nature had its origin barely 
50 years ago. It is the European nations and the American people 
who set an example to the World as to what could and ought to be 
done to preserve wild life within their lands. In the United States of 
America, the rapid development of the country, the spread of agricul- 
ture and industry threatened the destruction of its indigenous fauna. 
The tragedy was averted by establishing great National Parks or 
Reserves which not only give inviolable sanctuary to wild animals 
but also offer the people an added attraction because of their scenic 
beauty, their historical, geographical or archaeological interest. 

These National Parks provide the means by which the clash of 
interests between Man and the Animal is obviated; whereby security 
is found for the creature without imposing undue restraint upon human 
progress. The idea gained ground because of the people's approval. 
To-day, in the United States, there are no less than 40 great National 
Parks covering more than 3 million acres of land set aside for the 
protection of wild life. 

This magnificent effort for the protection of Nature has its 
parallel in the British Empire, so rich in the varied aspects of its 
wild life. In Canada, in New Zealand, Australia and the Union of 
South Africa great reserves have been created which give shelter and 
security to the wild life of these lands. The Kruger National Park 
in South Africa is the largest in the British Empire if not in the 
world. It covers over 8,000 square miles of territory. No park in 
the world cantains a more marvellous assemblage of wild animals. 
Quite apart from the protection given to the wild life of the country, 
this magnificent park fully justifies its existence by way of the yearly 
increasing revenues it brings to the State. The effort for the conser- 
vation of wild life has been equally splendid in Canada. Here again 
the public response evoked by the numerous National Parks within the 
Dominion has resulted in bringing in a great amount of money into the 
country. These measures have been taken by a race of people who 
are keenly concerned in the progress and development of 1 then- 
countries and nevertheless realise the advantage of making provision 
to safeguard their wild life from destruction. 

Within the last 20 years other nations have followed the example 
set by the Anglo-Saxon peoples. Switzerland has established her 
splendid national park amid the scenic grandeurs of the Engadine. 
Italy and Spain have created similar sanctuaries. Sweden surpasses 
all Continental countries with her 14 national parks. Finland and 
Austria have established numerous reserves for the protection of wild 
animals. Poland and Czecho- Slovakia have created a common park 
pn their frontiers in the region of Tatara and thus incidentally, jn. 



38 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

a common desire for the protection of Nature, they have found 
a happy solution of a vexed territorial problem. Belgium, if not the 
first in the field, has been equally energetic. The great wild life 
sanctuary in the Belgian Congo, known as the Pare National Albert, 
was created by Royal Decree in 1925 and by 1929 increased ten-fold 
in area. Five hundred thousand acres of mountain and forest have 
been set apart for the protection of African wild life This great reserve 
is open to the students of the world and in the years to come it will 
prove of inestimable value to scientists -and to all who love Nature 
and are interested in it. 

The cause of conservation has been advanced also by various 
International Conferences the last of which was held in Paris in 1930. 
In 1900, the British Government convened a Conference in London 
of the representatives of the Powers which resulted in the London 
Convention for the Preservation of Animals, Birds and Fish in 
Africa. It was signed by the Plenipotentiaries of Great Britain, 
France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Spain and Portugal, and is described 
as the Magna Charta of wild life in Africa. In 1913 an International 
Conference for the Protection of Nature was held at Berne at which 
17 Governments were represented. The principal conclusions of this 
Conference was the decision to establish a central organization to deal 
with the. question of Wild Life Preservation on an international basis. 
The war made this impossible and it was not till 1928 that the 
recommendations of the Berne Conference were given effect. A central 
Bureau, designed to develop as the pivot of an international movement 
for the protection of wild life was established at Brussels. It is known 
as the 'International Office for the Protection of Nature'. 

Similarly, within the British Empire, the London Conference 
resulted in the foundation of the Society for the Preservation of the 
Fauna of the Empire, which has given a great impetus to the move- 
ment in England and the Colonies and has now for many years 
exercised its great influence in the promotion of all forms of wild life 
protection. Reference must also be made to the American Committee 
for International Wild Life Protection, representing a unity of the large 
museums in the United States and to the Dutch Society for International 
Wild Life Protection. 

It will be seen from what has been written that in all civilized 
countries there, is a general recognition of the need for concerted and 
practical measures to stop the forces of destruction which threaten 
wild life in all parts of the world. There is i n India, too, the gravest 
need for such concerted action. 

India's Wonderful Fauna 

In its Fauna and Flora, Nature has endowed India with a magni- 
ficent asset. An asset which cannot fail to be generally appreciated 
by its people if they were led to know something of its worth and 
interest. 

All those reasons which have made the people of western countries 
strive for the protection of Nature within their borders apply with 
just as much if not more force to our country. Its wild life, in its 
interest, its beauty and its marvellous variety, compares favourably 
with that of any country in the world. There are more than 500 
different species of mammals found within the Indian Empire. They 
include the Elephant associated in India from time immemorial with 

4 



INTRODUCTIONAL SURVEY OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE & THE PROBLEM 39 

the splendour of her princely pageantry, the Gaur or Indian Bison, 
the largest of existing bovines, the Great Indian Rhinoceros, the 
greatest of all the rhinos now inhabiting the world, the gigantic wild 
sheep of the Himalayas, probably the largest of their race, the Swamp 
Deer, the Thamin and the Spotted Deer, one of the most beautiful 
of all deer and the Nilghai, the Four-horned Antelope and Indian 
Antelope or Black Buck the only representatives of these genera. The 
beasts of prey include the Lion and the Tiger, the most magn'ficent 
of all the great cats, and such splendid creatures as the Clouded 
Leopard, the Ounce and the Marbled Cat. Other species, like our 
Himalayan foxes, martens, gorgeous flying squirrels and silky-haired 
langurs are remarkable for the beauty and value of their fur. The 
Musk Deer and the Civets provide the musk of commerce. Other 
species are remarkable for the beauty of their colouring. Our little 
Painted Bat (Kerivoula pirta) with its brilliant vermilion and black 
wings, is, without exception, the most vividly coloured mammal in the 
world. Peculiarity in form and structure is displayed by that strange 
creature the Flying Lemur, which is neither lemur nor bat but which 
bears the same relationship to the shrews as the. flying squirrel does 
to the squirrels, or by the Scaly Ant-eater which, with its long scaly- 
body, looks more like a reptile than any form of mammal. Apart 
from the interest in their symmetry of form, largeness of size, beauty 
of colouring or strangeness of structure or habits there is always 
that attraction and charm which the presence of wild life gives to 
our forests and plains — so dear to the many that live for the out- 
door life. 

A further interest attaches to our wild life from its association 
with the folk-lore and the legendary beliefs of the country. It is an 
interest not confined to India alone, but which has spread among men 
of culture everywhere because of the esteem and admiration in which 
her Sacred Books and writings are held. 

Some 30 different mammals are mentioned by name in the 
Samhitas (i.e., the four principal Vedas). Among them is the Elephant, 
the favourite of Indra, whose sanctity is enhanced by the belief that 
eight elephants guard the eight celestial points of the compass. The 
Langur or Hanuman Monkey is held in veneration, as is commonly 
known, because of its association with other warrior monkeys who 
helped Rama in his campaign against Ravana. The Lion is one of 
the many incarnations of Vishnu; the Tiger finds mention in the later 
Vedic texts. The Mungoose figures in the Mahabharata as a teacher 
of wisdom to King Yudhisthira. The Deer is always associated with 
Brahma, the Creator, and is the constant companion of the God 
Mahadeva. The Wild Boar is referred to as the 'Boar of Heaven'. 
It is told how in the primordial floods Vishnu, taking the form -of 
a boar, raised the submerged earth from the waters and supported it 
on his tusks. One could cite many more references from the Sacred 
Books concerning the animal life of the country. But apart from 
this, it is of much interest for us to know that the earliest known 
record of measures taken for the protection of animal life v comes from. 
India. The earliest record, which we possess to-day, is the Fifth 
Pillar Edict of Asoka by which game and fishery laws were introduced 
into Northern India in the third century B.C. In this inscription, the 
Emperor had carved on enduring stone a list of birds, beasts, fishes 
and possibly even insects which were to be strictly preserved. The 

5 



40 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE INT INDIA 

mammals named are 'Bats, Monkeys, Rhinoceros, Porcupines, Tree 
Squirrels, Bara singha ---■ Stags, Brahminy Bulls, and all four-footed 
animals which were not utilised or eaten'. The edict further ordains 
'that forests must not be burned, either for mischief or to destroy 
living creatures'. 

Centuries later, the Moghu! Emperors, sportsmen, men of action 
and born observers that they were, displayed a deep interest in the 
animal life of the. country. Their writings are full of descriptions, some 
in great detail, of the animals, the plants' and flowers of the country 
over which they ruled. While Babur, Humayun, the great Akbar and 
Aurangzeeb display in their writings their great love of Nature, 
Jehangir was a born naturalist. It is said of him that had he been the 
head of a great Natural History Museum instead of being the Emperor 
of India, he would have been a better and happier man. His profuse 
and engrossing memoirs are a real Natural History of the animal life 
of India. 

The Problem of Wild Life Protection in India 

We have endeavoured to show how great an asset to our country 
is its wild life and to give the many reasons why we should do 
everything for its protection. But for the protection given to the 
Lion in Junaghad State and the Great Indian Rhinoceros in Nepal 
and Assam these two interesting animals would have been extermi- 
nated long ago. The Cheetah or Hunting Leopard, once common in 
Central- India, is now almost extinct in the wild state. The Lesser 
One-horned Rhinoceros and the Asiatic Two-horned Rhinoceros, once 
said to be common in the grass jungles of Assam and the Sundarbans, 
have been practically exterminated in these areas. In many districts 
, wild animals have been totally wiped out. In others, where they were 
once common, they are now hopelessly depleted. One does not wish 
to overdraw the picture. There are parts of India where the position 
of wild life is still satisfactory though insecure. But equally, there are 
extensive areas where conditions are so appalling that, if left unchecked, 
they must lead to the complete destruction of all the larger wild 
creatures which live in them. There is yet another point which must 
be 1 stressed. Any scheme for the Protection of Wild Life would be 
incomplete without due provision for the protection of our Birds. 
Quite apart from a sentimental value, birds render incalculable service 
to Man. While certain species may damage crops, such harm as is 
done by birds is overwhelmingly offset by the benefits we derive from 
them. Without their protection, our crops, our orchards, our food 
supply would be devoured- or destroyed by hordes of ravaging insects. 
Birds are the principal agency that controls the bewildering multipli- 
cation of insect life which, if unchecked, would overwhelm all life on 
this planet. Birds by reason of their predominating insect food are 
an indispensable balancing force in Nature. The abundant bird life 
of this country is one of its valuable possessions. Those who appreciate 
its value, cannot but strive for its conservation. 

If we accept this principle of Conservation as it is now accepted 
by almost all civilized countries, what methods must we employ to 
give it effect? It is obvious in a country like India, where conditions 
in different provinces vary so greatly, the methods of conservation must 
also vary, but it is necessary to arrive at some understanding of the 
broad principles which underlie the problem. The land may be 



INTRODUCTIONAL SURVEY OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE & THE PROBLEM 41 

classified for this purpose into three main categories: urban lands, 
agricultural lands and forest and waste lands. 

Agriculture and Wild^Life Protection 

As far as our wild life is concerned, one cannot expect its 
preservation in urban lands. Nevertheless, we believe that it is time 
that measures should be taken for the protection of birds in urban 
areas. Areas actually under the control of Municipalities or Local 
Boards could be made, with advantage, Bird Sanctuaries, where the 
killing of birds should be forbidden. There is need to put an end to the 
wanton destruction of familiar birds which takes place in the immediate 
vicinity of towns. 

The second category — land under cultivation — provides at once 
the opportunity for a clash between the interests of Man and the 
Animal. There are two main reasons for this. Firstly, the areas under 
cultivation in India are extending and will continue to extend to meet 
the needs of a rapidly increasing population. This has increased by 
35 million within the last decade! The need of increasing the available 
sources of food supply can be met only by the continued absorption 
of waste lands ox forest — the natural domain of wild life. Secondly, 
there is the equally imperative need of protecting these cultivated areas 
from wild animals. The depredations of wild animals present one of 
the most serious handicaps the ryot has to face. In addition to loss 
of cattle, there is the damage done to crops and, not uncommonly, 
loss of human life. Therefore, whatever the views of the protectionist, 
' this much is clear. Human progress must continue, and in the clash 
of interests between Man and the Animal human effort must not suffer. 
But this problem has been faced by other countries. Cannot a 
reasonable effort be made to face it in our own? That an intensive 
development of the agricultural resources of a country may accompany 
a sane and adequate policy for the conservation of its wild life 
is shown by the measures taken to this end by all progressive 
nations. 

If our wild life is to find protection at all, it must find it somer 
where in our forests. It is often claimed that the proximity of forests 
to agriculture makes them a constant source of harassment to the 
cultivator. If this argument is pushed to its logical conclusion, the 
only remedy would be to remove such protection as is now given to wild 
animals in our forests, for it. would not be possible to remove this 
menace entirely, until all the large wild animals in them were killed, 
died of wounds or were exterminated over large areas because of their 
inability to breed. Surely our goal is not the total extermination of 
our wild life — which is what must inevitably happen unless some form 
of protection is given to it within its natural domain. While it is 
essential that the cultivator should have reasonable latitude to defend 
his property, it is equally essential that there should be certain areas 
or reserves where the shooting of animals is regulated and where the 
laws for their protection are rigidly enforced. Such reserves exist — 
roughly about one-third of British India and Burma consist of Reserved 
Forest — but, while we have extensive forests to shelter and laws to 
protect it, our wild life is everywhere on the decrease. The time has 
surely come when it is necessary for us to review the position and 
to take such measures as are necessary to give real protection to the 
wild life of the country. It is the opinion of some that these great 

7 



42 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

State-owned forests, where laws now operate for the protection of 
animals, are and must continue to remain the natural sanctuaries of 
wild life in this country and that theyAvould adequately fulfil the purpose 
of protection if they were effectively warded. The correctness of this 
view depends entirely on actual conditions in a particular Provincs. 
The extent and nature of the forests, their accessibility, the density of 
the population and the extent to which cultivation surrounds them 
are factors which must influence the issue. It may be found that in 
certain Provinces the establishment of a 'national park or reserve, in 
specially selected areas, will provide the only means of giving adequate 
protection to wild life without hampering agricultural development. 
It is certain that the creation of such a reserve or national park would 
give a special status to it, and thus facilitate the passing of special laws 
made applicable to such an area. Further, the actual selection and 
declaration as a National Park of certain definite areas would have the 
practical effect of forcing on the attention of successive generations of 
officials the importance of saving these areas from any danger of 
disafforestation and of taking all practical measures for the preservation 
of the wild animals found within them. 

The Need for a Special Organization to Protect Wild Life 

Whether our reserve forests remain the principal sanctuaries for 
wild life in this country or whether in some of the Provinces the 
purpose is effected, by establishing national parks, there is need for 
a real organization whose sole concern will be the protection of wild 
animals in these preserves. Our efforts to protect wild life have failed 
mainly because of the haphazard methods n-e employ, the lack of any 
co-ordinate policy and the lack of any real protective agency to carry 
t that policy into effect. The Forest Department which ordinarily 
administers the Forest laws has multifarious duties to perform and, 
while the Forest Officer has discharged this trust to the best of his 
ability, he cannot give the question his personal attention, nor can he 
find tinie, except in a general way, to control the protection of wild 
life in our forests. Experience of other countries has' shown the need 
of a separate and distinct organization whose sole concern is the 
protection of wild life in the areas in which it operates. 

Further, the existing laws, as now applicable in many of our 
Provinces, are obsolete. Naturally, their primary purposs is the 
protection of the forest rather than its. wild life. These laws require 
consolidation and bringing up to modern standards of conservation. 
No better guide to our Provincial Governments seeking to amend their 
game laws exists than the recently issued report of the Wild Life 
Commission in Malaya. Volujne II of this Report gives the general 
principles of conservation. It shows how these principles may be 
embodied in an Act and indicates new administrative methods, based 
on actual experience and on the laws of other countries. With 
modifications, where necessary, it will serve as a model for Protective 
Legislation in India. 

Lastly there is the all-important question of making adequate 
financial provision for carrying out the work of conservation. 

In these days of depression, when most Governments are faced 
with deficit budgets, the apportioning of money for this purpose must 
be a matter of difficulty but, unless and until suitable financial provi- 
sion is made by the State for the conservation of wild life within, its. 



INTRODUCTIONAL SURVEY OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE & THE PROBLEM 43 

borders, the efforf cannot succeed. This much is clear. Our present 
haphazard methods have failed. The experience of other countries 
indicates the system that should replace them. The effective introduction 
of this system depends upon money being provided to work it. In the 
United States and in other countries the problem of financing the 
work of conservation has been helped by the creation of special 
funds. 

The recent Wild Life Commission in Malaya, which made a careful 
study of this aspect of the problem, strongly urges the creation of 
such a fund to be termed the Wild Life Fund and to be used solely for 
the purpose of conservation. The idea is that all fees which could be 
collected under Wild Life Enactments, including any licences or fees 
for riverine fishing, as well as revenues from all sporting arms licences,, 
permits, duties on arms (sporting) and ammunition (sporting) should 
be credited to the Wild Life Fund. If any of these fees are collected 
by another department, then the cost of collection should be borne by 
the Wild Life Fund. It is the only means by which financial provision 
can be made expressly for the purpose of conservation. It is the only 
means by which the money devoted to this purpose will have a definite 
relation to the revenue derived by the State from wild life sources 
and which, therefore, can be expended with every justification upon 
the conservation of these sources. It is the only way to ensure an 
equitable system of conservation; the only way in which a properly 
organised department can be stabilised. Tt is the solution advocated 
in other countries and one which is equally applicable to any country 
which undertakes the conservation of wild life on sound lines. If the 
idea of creating a Wild Life Fund is not acceptable and, if we are yet 
serious in our intention to do what is possible for the conservation of 
wild life in Tndia, then we must replace the Wild Life Fund by an 
alternative policy, which will ensure the allocation of sufficient money 
to meet the requirements of adequate conservation. It is so easy to 
refuse a constructive policy and then put nothing in its place. The 
necessity for conservation being clear, the importance of an adequate 
financial policy to support it cannot be ignored. 

So much for the broad outlines of the problem. They resolve 
themselves as we have seen into the formulation of a co-ordinate 
policy for the protection of Wild Life in India, into the selection of 
suitable areas where our wild, life can be protected without undue 
detriment to human interests, the creation of a special agency for 
carrying out the work of protection and finally, a revision, wherever 
necessary, of such laws as exist in order to help these agencies to 
carry out their task effectively. 

It is obvious that in a country so vast as India, with its varying 
climate and physical conditions, methods in conservation will vary in 
different provinces. The Society therefore proposes to publish a series 
of papers by different authors on the protection of wild life in the 
different Provinces of India. These articles have been written by 
authorities who have made a special study of the problem in the areas 
of which they write. Their knowledge and experience enable them 
to indicate exactly what measures ought to be taken for the protection 
of wild life and how these measures can be given effect to in a particular 
Province. 

Those who are contributing to this instructive and helpful series 
are; 

9 



44 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIPE IN INDIA 

Central India, Mr. A. A. Dunbar Brander (late Conservator of 
Forests, C P.); Southern India, Mr. R. D. Richmond (late Chief 
Conservator of Forests, Madras Presidency); Punjab, Mr, C. H, Donald 
(Director of Fisheries, Punjab); United Provinces, Mr. F. W. Champion, 
i.f.s. (Conservator of Forests,, U.P.); Assam, Mr. A. J. W. Milroy 
(Conservator of Forests, Assam); Bombay Presidency, Mr. G. 
Monteith, i.c.s.; Burma, Mr. H. C. Smith (Honorary Game Warden, 
Burma); Kashmir, Capt. R. G. Wreford (Game Warden, Kashmir); 
Hyderabad, Mr. Salim A. Ali; Mysore, Major E. G. Pythian-Adams 
(Nilgiri Game Association). 

We have indicated what other countries are doing for the protec- 
tion of wild life but it must be apparent that the measures which they 
have taken, whether initiated by Acts of Government or by private 
enterprise must owe their success to the support of public opinion. 
There is need for the creation of sane public opinion on the subject 
of wild life protection in India. At present, such opinion hardly exists 
and even if it does, in some quarters it may be antagonistic. This is 
mainly because people do not know, nor has any attempt been made 
to teach them something of the beauty, the interest and the value of 
the magnificent fauna of this country. In most western countries 
there is a wealth of cheap and popular literature dealing with the 
natural history of those lands. In India such literature as exists, is 
either unintelligible to the average reader or sold at a price beyond 
popular reach. Again, in most western countries, Nature Study teaching 
is a serious part of the earlier stages of the school curriculum. While 
its main object is to develop the child's powers of observation, it 
creates a love of Nature and a sense of companionship with life out 
of doors. It is true that in India feeble attempts are made from time 
to time to introduce Nature Study teaching into our Primary -and 
Secondary schools. But often such teaching as is given, deals with 
pine trees and acorns, with polar bears and robin redbreasts, and has 
little or no relation to the child's own environment. The present series 
of articles is therefore written with the purpose of providing a popular 
and well illustrated account which will give people general information 
about the Mammals of the Indian Empire. Its object is to arouse 
interest in the Fauna of the country with a view to its protection and 
not its destruction. It is proposed to issue this series in six parts, 
dealing separately with the various orders of Mammals. While the 
series -will appear in the Society's Journal, separately bound copies will 
be available for distribution. An important and essential feature of 
these articles is the large number of coloured and black and white 
illustrations. An attempt is being made to illustrate most of the more 
important species of mammals found within our limits. Our ability 
to undertake this expensive work is due to the generosity of Mr. F. V. 
Evans, a Vice-Patron of the Natural History Society and one of its 
most generous benefactors. He is paying for these illustrations. 
Mr. F. V. Evans was in fact- the initiator of these articles on Wild 
Life Protection in India. It is a subject in which he has always 
interested himself and the great encouragement and very material assist- 
ance which he has given to the Society in advancing this cause must 
earn for him the gratitude of all those who are interested in this 
question. Our thanks are also due to the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York, and to the Field Museum, Chicago, for 
permission to use some of the pictures which accompany these articles, 

10 



lNTRODUCTIONAL SURVEY Of THE INDIAN EMPIRE & THE PROBLEM 45 

Acknowledgements are due to Mr. Pocock of the British Museum 
and to Mr. W. S. Millard for the help they have given in supervising 
the preparation of the illustrations. 

The Society hopes that these articles will do something towards 
drawing the attention of people in India to the magnificent heritage 
which Nature has given them in this country. It hopes they will 
help them to realise the need for preserving this legacy to their own 
advantage and to the enjoyment of generations to come, who with 
the spread of education will be in a better position to appreciate its 
worth than we arc to-day. 



11 



3. (fc) THE CENTRAL PROVINCES (MADHYA PRADESH) 

By A. A. Dunbar Brander 
Late Conservator of Forests, Central Provinces 

Game Country: Status and Jurisdiction 

Good game tracts exist both in Indian States and in British India. 

The British Government has no jurisdiction over the game in 
Indian States. Most of the Indian Princes protect game, and there 
is a growing tendency for this movement to spread and become more 
vigorous. In most States the laws or rules for the protection of wild 
animals are effectively enforced. 

No more need be said about the States. With regard to British 
India, game is found in country having a different legal status, and this 
must be differentiated: — 

(a) Private land. 

(b) State land. 

Generally speaking, game in (a) has no owner. It belongs neither 
to the owner of the land nor to the State. The Government, however, 
has the right to pass laws regulating the slaughter of game, and in 
most cases such laws have been passed. I shall refer to this in more 
detail when dealing with game laws. 

With regard to State land the great bulk of which consists of 
Government forest, the State owns the game, and special laws dealing 
with its protection throughout India have been passed, These laws 
are administered by the Forest Department. I shall also refer to this 
in some detail later on. 

Types of Game Country 

There are four main types of country in which game is found and 
which I have designated as follows: — 

(1) Himalayan. 

(2) Terai. 

(3) Central Plateau. 

(4) Southern. 

Position with Regard to Protection in Each Type 

Himalayan — The terrain in -which the game is found is its chief 
protection. To destroy it entails arduous and whole-time work, quite 
incompatible with any prospective profits to the poacher, and, save 
with regard to certain species which frequent the outer hills, no special 
measures are called for with regard to this tract. 

The Terai. — Very much the same applies to the Terai, but for 
different causes. This tract of country extends from Dehra Dun along 
the Himalayan foothills eastward into Assam and thence southward 
towards the Bay of Bengal. In it the jungle and grasses are so dense 
that no serious slaughter of game can take place without the extensive 
use of elephants. These, of course, cannot be employed without 
sanction and regulation. The amount of game and species to be killed 
can, therefore, be regulated; game is holding its own and no special 
measures seem called for in this tract. 



THE CENIRAL PROVINCES (MADHYA PRADESH) 47 

The Central Plateau. — This tract embraces the great mass of India 
and was at one time the finest shooting country and contained the 
finest fauna in the East. The forest is generally open and although 
often hilly the hills are no deterrent to- a hunter. Unlike the other 
tracts, nature of the terrain in the Central Plateau is an inadequate 
protection. Further, the game-holding tracts are not only surrounded 
by a dense population, but a large interior population of aborigines 
exists inside the forest itself, to an extent not found in the other tracts. 
It is in this tract that the recent disappearance of game has been so 
lamentable and calls for the most urgent remedial measures. 

I left India in 1922 but revisited it in 1928, and was appalled to 
find such a change in so short a period, quite common species being 
found only with difficulty. The finest game country in this tract is 
found in the Central Provinces, and 1 shall deal at some length with the 
causes which have brought about this state of affairs in that area, 
as I believe they have a very wide application. 

The Southern Type. — As I do not know this country personally 
I write about it with some diffidence. I have, however, taken a very 
deep interest in all that pertains to game during my whole service in 
India, and I believe the following to be fundamentally true. The 
country is very mountainous and the cover is often dense: less 
mountainous, of course, than even the outer spurs of the Himalayas, 
and less dense than the Terai. Nevertheless the combination of these 
two factors in the same area makes the destruction of game by no 
means easy; and so far as I know the game is fairly well holding its 
own except in outlying portions. 

Position of Game on Private Lands 

As already stated, the game in private lands has no owner. The 
State has passed laws prohibiting the killing of does and immature 
animals, sitting over water, and the use of various methods of -destruc- 
tion. To all intents and purposes the laws are a dead letter as there 
is no preventive staff. The two main preventive services in India are 
the Police and the Forest Service. The latter has no jurisdiction outside 
State forest, and the Police take no interest in enforcing the rules. 
Prosecutions are very rare, and any interest the local constable may 
take in the matter would often be to share in the booty. The result 
is that game has almost disappeared from private lands. The main 
Bombay-Allahabad line runs through some 200 miles of antelope 
country. Twenty years ago one was almost constantly in sight of herds. 
In 1928 in four hours I only saw two small herds, watching from the 
train. The only fauna left in private lands is a few chital and sambar 
in specially favoured localities, pig in considerable numbers, and a 
sprinkling of antelope, also lesser carnivora. 

The great mass of the country, however, is blank and it will be 
readily understood that these blank unprotected spaces surrounding 
Government forest which contain game act as a constant drain on the 
stock of fauna in the protected lands: there is constant leakage to 
destruction. In my opinion nothing can save the fauna in these private 
lands. Its extermination is certain. The people have been educated 
to destroy it: there is no staff to protect it, and even if the Indian 
Legislatures could be induced to take measures, financial considerations 
preclude adequate protection. 

2 



48 IHE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

State Lands: Position of Game 

These mostly consist of State forests where the Forest Act and 
the rules made thereunder apply; amongst these are included the rules 
regulating the killing-of game. On the whole, these are excellent, and, 
although I shall suggest certain stiffening to meet modern conditions, 
nevertheless it is not in the rules themselves but in their application 
that failure arises. As regards the European and Indian sportsmen 
who enter the Forest to shoot under permit, the rules are absolutely 
efficacious, and this type of sportsman does no harm. Where they 
fail is in the prevention of poaching. There is lucrative trade in 
game; the initial detection of poaching often rests with a lowly-paid 
forest guard. Men possessing guns often command respect, and the 
guard finds the easiest plan is to take a percentage of the profits. 
Moreover, special rewards, which the rules sanction in poaching cases, 
are far too sparingly given, and the magistrates' sentences are often 
quite inadequate. 

The Main Reasons Why the Destruction of Game has 
Recently Increased 

(1) During the war the rules were relaxed. In certain cases the 
shooting of does was permitted to make leather jackets for sailors. 
There was a general activity in the trade in the products of game: 
tanneries came into being, and what was previously an occasional 
trade has now become an active competitive one with wide ramifications: 
a slaughtered deer no longer means merely a gorge of meat for the local 
aborigines, it is an article of commerce and a valuable one. 

(2) There has been a very large increase in the number of gun 
licences issued as well as a large increase in unlicensed or illegal guns. 
It is easy to see that with a large number of guns legally possessed, 
the detection of illegal guns becomes more difficult. Be the causes 
what they may, the State forests are surrounded by guns, many of which 
are constantly used in destroying game bolh inside the forest and just 
outside it. In the present political situation any attempt to regulate 
the number of guns to actual requirements for crop-protection is hope- 
less. The guns have come, and to stay. 

(3) The Motor Cot'. — This is perhaps the biggest factor of all," in 
the disappearance of game, although without the two previous causes 
its significance would be small. Since the war whole tracts have been 
opened^ up — in fact no tract is inviolate— cars penetrating along dirt 
tracks into country in one day which previously took a week's march- 
ing with camels and horses. Every car that moves by day or night 
has one or more guns in it, and practically every animal seen which 
presents a fair chance of being killed, without further questions asked, 
is fired at. Moreover, expeditions go out at night with strong moveable 
searchlights and shoot down whatever is encountered, and the car 
enables the booty to be removed. The destruction is terrible. [ came 
across glaring cases during my short three months' trip in 1928. The 
present game laws were framed before this menace arose, and they 
require to be reviewed and amended in consequence. 

Some Remedial Measures Suggested 

(1) An attempt to check the increase of guns, even reduce them. 

(2) Much stricter control and regulation of tanneries and businesses 
trading in wild fauna and its products. 

3 



THE CENTRAL PROVINCES (MADHYA PRADESH) 49" 

- -(3) Complete review of the rules so as to deal with the motor car 
amongst other things, and to bring the owner and the driver of any 
car within the penalties of law-breaking. 

(4) Press for stiffer sentences in poaching cases and rewards to 
subordinates detecting the same. These rewards are at present 
optional, but should be made as a matter of course, save for definite 
reasons. 

(5) Establishing associations for the protection of Wild Life and 
rousing enlightened Indian opinion, and enlisting influential men as 
members of such Societies. 

Sanctuaries 

As will be seen from what I have written above, the Himalayan 
and Terai areas are hardly suitable places, ^ven if required, in which 
to create National Sanctuaries. With "regard to the Central and 
Southern areas, the case is different. In these tracts thgy will form 
a useful and interesting purpose, especially in the former, where the 
fauna can be readily observed, will readily tame, and be a delight 
to visitors. 

My knowledge of the Southern tract does not enable me to suggest 
any particular area, but as I know every square mile of the Central 
Provinces I can definitely assert that one area is suited par excellence 
for a National Park. This is known as the Banjar Valley Reserve. 

The Banjar Valley Reserve 

Situation. — Situated in the South Mandla Forest Division, 30 miles 
south-east of Mandla, which is the District Head-quarters. 

Mandla is almost 60 miles, due south of Jabalpur, and served by 
first-class road and light railway. There is a fair weather motor road 
from Mandla to Khana in the centre of the valley. 

Maps. — Splendid forest maps on the 4 inch to 1 mile scale made 
by the Forest Survey can be got from the Map Office, Dehra Dun.' 
These show 25 feet contours, and, if desired, maps showing grass-lands, 
sal forest and mixed forests (Stock Maps) can be purchased. 

Area. — From memory the area is about 40,000 acres, but for the 
purposes of a National Sanctuary some 30,000 additional and adjoining 
acres should be included. The Banjar Valley is merely a name given 
to a forest unit. 

General Description.' — Broadly speaking the area is a huge amphi-> 
theatre surrounded in a circular manner by a range of hills about 
3,000 feet high. The bulk of the area is within these hills, but the forest 
extends down the outward slopes of the hills until the cultivated plains 
are reached. It is well watered -throughout, but this of course could 
be improved, especially on the hill-tops. i 

The low-lying portions consist of grass maidans or open plains, 
young trees being cut back annually by frost. As soon as the contour 
above the frost level is reached pure Sal (Shorea robustd) forest is found. 
This, however, only .extends a short way up the hillsides, where it gives 
place to the usual mixed forest of 200 of 300 species and bamboos. 
The rock and soil are metamorphic sand with occasional pockets of 
black cotton soil. 

The Game. — In 19C0 this tract contained as much game as any 
tract I ever saw in the best parts of Africa in 1908. 1 have see'n 
1,500 head consisting of 11 species in an evening's stroll. It is 



50 



THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 



nothing like that now, but it is still probably true to say that it con- 
tains more numbers and more species than any other tract of its size 
in the whole of Asia, 





Banjar Valley 






tiam'e'. — The following species are 


found 


in many nu 


mbers: 


Bison 


common 




Nilgai 


scattered 


Swamp deer 


common 




Bear 


common 


Sambar 


common 




Tiger 


common 


Chital 


common 




Leopard 


common 


Barking deer 


common 




Wild dog 


common 


Four-horned 






Hyaena 


a few 


antelope 


common 




Jackal 


common 


Mouse deer 


common 




Fox 


a few 




(not often seen) 


- 


Porcupine 


common 


Blackbuck 


two good herds 




Pig 


common 



and a mass of small rodents and carnivora as well as Langur monkeys. 

Chinkara are found on the outliers outside the reserve but rarely. 

It will thus be seen that the tract contains all the game animals 
of the plains of India except chinkara, elephant, buffalo, lion. In 
1900 elephants and buffaloes were regular rain visitors. The latter 
would probably return if given encouragement. 

Legal Position 

This area is one of the oldest State reserves and belongs to 
Government. It contains valuable timber and is policed and adminis- 
tered by the Forest Department. Government would not care to give 
up working the valuable timber in the area, but this need not interfere 
with the Sanctuary. 

It is essential that the area remain State Forest, otherwise the 
Forest Act would not apply. Also it is absolutely essential for our 
purposes that the Act should continue to apply. Some form of 
'dedication' could no doubt adjust this as there is no incompatibility. 

If the Act applies, as it must, and if the Forest Department 
continues to manage the Forest (timber), as it will, it is clear that our 
staff must be also the Forest Staff. Otherwise there will be two staffs 
in the same area, and one will be in opposition to the other. Moreover, 
the Forest Department has managed the game in India, against great 
difficulty, with signal success in most cases, and to deprive them of 
these functions would create resentment, especially, unless it could be 
shown to be reasonable and necessary. 

Bailjar Valley 

The shooting of game is strictly regulated, but a tremendous lot 
of poaching takes place. Part of it is always sanctuary, but these 
sanctuaries which are found in numbers in all districts are merely 
administrative shooting sanctuaries, resting blocks, pending opening 
to shooting again. They have nothing like the status of a National 
Sanctuary. 

Some Suggestions 

The local Government might agree to the area being declared 
a National Sanctuary but would, I consider, be more inclined to give 
the proposal favourable consideration if it was initiated by Jndian 

5 



THE CENTRAL PROVINCES (MADHYA PRADESH) 5i 

gentlemen. It might, therefore, be the best course to first obtain the 
support of the non-official members of the Legislative Council and it 
is believed that the conservation of Indian wild life for the benefit of 
the Indian People is a plea which no party can lightly thrust aside. 

Conclusion 

I consider that action in India is urgently required, perhaps more 
so than in Africa. There are I know questions of detail Which apply 
to particular areas and particular species which 1 have not touched 
upon but in the above I have attempted to tell you something about 
India as a whole, and in particular what definite action that might be 
taken in the Central Provinces. 



Oji^ox 



3. (c) THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY (BOMBAY STATE) 

By G. Monteith, I.C.S. 

In some Forest districts a heavy decrease in the numbers of certain 
species — those that afford, in addition to the sport of hunting them, 
desirable trophies — had taken place before the question of protection 
began to be considered seriously and rules were made under the 
Forest Act to impose some limit on killing. It must be admitted that 
up to that time — that is till after the beginning of this century— the 
main agent of destruction was the 'European' sportsman, to give him 
the title established by long usage in India. Neither the indigenous 
'shikari' nor the wild dog — two kinds of 'poacher' frequently accused — 

can properly be blamed for it. 

* * * * 

Trade in Hides and Horns 

If there was money in it for the villagers, illicit hunting in Forest 
districts might be a more serious matter, but I never found much 
evidence of that kind of inducement. No doubt there has always 
been some illegal trade in 'Forest produce' — horns, hides, or meat for 
the purposes of this article — and no doubt it continues. Sambar 
leather I know is exported to England, but I do not think much, 
if any, of it comes from our part of India. 1 could never in fact discover 
that there was enough of this kind of trade in the districts I knew to 
matter very much — unlike some Provinces, to judge by what I have 
heard and read — or that most of what there was was done through 
the agency, or to the pecuniary advantage, of Forest villagers. 

Protective Legislation 

However, such trade is admittedly illegal, and under modern 
conditions could increase very considerably in the absence of more 
effectual obstruction than seems to be possible at present, owing, 
I gather, to the interpretation so far allowed of the words 'Forest 
produce', which makes it incumbent on the prosecution to prove that 
any animal that is the subject of a case was actually killed in Govern- 
ment Forest. Certain animals are forest-dwellers wherever they may 
happen to be at the moment they are killed. It is not in this context 
the killing that is the offence, but commerce in certain kinds of ' Forest 
produce', an offence which by its nature is, in part at any rate, com- 
mitted outside Forest limits. The contention that the particular animal 
in question was killed elsewhere than in Government Forest ought not 
in fact to be relevant. At least the burden of proving it should be on 
the defence (though I doubt whether that would get us much further). 
If an amendment of the definition is likely to be of use it would 
probably be easy to make it, but I think myself that what" is wanted 
is legislation of a wider scope, to include animals that are normally 
found in non-forest country, for at the present time they are in a more 

parlous state than the others. 

* * * * 

Predatory Animals 

Before I go on [ had better dispose as well as Z can of the case 
against the wild dog, a very interesting creature with a bad name, for 
he shares in some degree with the inhabitants of villages in or adjacent 

1 



THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY (BOMBAY STATE) 53 

to forest the odium of causing game to disappear faster than it can 
breed. There is a good deal of misapprehension about the actual 
amount of damage done by wild dogs, based partly on the impression 
they give of being much more numerous than they really are, and 
partly on the natural exasperation and prejudice caused by the fact 
that when the visit of a troop synchronises with that of a sportsman 
to a particular bit of jungle they undoubtedly often spoil the latter's 
chances; since the game is for the time being more or less disturbed, 
and the local tiger, finding his hunting interfered with, moves off. 
But a troop seldom remains in one place more than a few days. It 
makes its kill — with luck perhaps a second kill — and departs, and is 
seen again perhaps twenty miles away, creating the illusion that there 
are twice as many wild dogs in that area of forest as there really are. 
The game settles down again, the tiger returns, and the status quo is 
restored as soon as the dogs disappear, and it is a fact to b2 noticed 
that their most regular visits are to those places in which deer — their 
usual quarry — continue to be numerous. 

Predatory wild animals do not, till man intervenes, increase out 
of proportion to their food-supply. 

Local Conditions 

Some of the old books about 'Wild Sports' in India — classics of 
their kind — show how little the keen sportsman in the past, District 
officer, or soldier, or whatever his vocation might be, thought in the 
midst of comparative abundance about the future, and that the idea 
of protection of any kind — even of a close season other than what 
might be enforced by the season of the year — hardly occurred to him. 
Too often, as in Africa, he slew while he had the opportunity and 
spared not — (only in India we have not had the professional hunter). 
* * * * 

The aggregate of execution done in any area depended naturally on 
its accessibility from large cities, cantonments, or railway .centres — in 
other words on the number of'sportsmen that would visit it in a year. 
We have a good enough example in the Bombay Presidency in a 
comparison of the state of things in North Kanara with 'that in Thana 
at the time when rules and a system of licensing were first put into 
force. In the latter district when I left it bison survived only in a 
small herd in one part of the forests, and to-day I am told are extinct: 
sambar were scarce: cheetal though pretty widely distributed were in 
small and scattered herds (and I need hardly say that their size 
generally indicates fairly well whether species that habitually go in herds 
are plentiful or not): the usually harmless bear, which, like bison, 
had been not uncommon twenty or thirty years previously, had dis- 
appeared altogether. Most parts of Thana, with its two main lines 
of railway and a sufficiency of tolerable roads, were easy enough of 
access in pre-motor days from Bombay, Poona, or one of the two or 
three hot-weather resorts on its borders, to make it worth While for 
any one with a taste for 'shikar' and only two or three days — say 
a week-end — to spare, to spend them on a shikar expedition in the 
Thana District. Kanara was a different proposition. Even after com- 
pletion of the Southern Maratha Railway it took a good deal of time 
to get to Kanara for any one not resident in one of the adjoining 
districts, so that considerable preparation and 'bandoba^t' were 

2 



54 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

necessary. Short expeditions repeated at more or less frequent intervals 
were consequently for most people out of the question. So when 
'rules and regulations to govern hunting and shooting' were made 
there was still in Kanara plenty of game of all the species indigenous 
to it. Tt can hardly be argued that the local 'poacher' was so much 
less efficient in Kanara than in Thana as to account for the difference 
between the two districts, and the conclusion seems to be obvious. 

Local Regulations 

(1) Southern Circle 

The regulations in force in the Southern Forest Circle are in one 
main respect different from those governing the forest areas of the rest 
of the Presidency, in that the former include, and are in fact based on, 
the Central Provinces 'block' system. Mr. Bell and I drew them up 
in consultation, and they were sanctioned in the face of some opposition 
on the part of more than one Divisional Forest Officer, but I think 
Forest Officers in the Southern Circle would be sorry now to see the 
present system done away with and the old one reverted to. Elsewhere 
the views of those consulted prevailed, namely, that the existing rules 
were good enough and the 'block' system was unnecessary and not 
easily workable in their circles. 

That the present state of things in the Southern Circle forest areas 
is on the whole, as 1 think it is, satisfactory, is attributable mainly or 
very largely to the fact that the 'block' system and attendant rules 
were introduced in good time, that is before the general use of motor 
transport had begun to make. many parts of North Kanara so much 
more accessible than they were in former days. The restrictions imposed 
by the old rules — consisting of little more than the necessity, for the 
purpose of shooting in Government Forests, of buying a licence avail- 
able for a year, and a limit of the number of head of certain species 
that might be shot by an individual licensee — would hardly have been 
enough by themselves to counteract the effect of a much greater annual 
influx of sportsmen, with the inveterate tendency of the majority to 
follow one another into well known and favoured localities. The 
system now in force seems to provide as adequately as any set of 
regulations can against overshooting of those parts of the Southern 
Circle forests to which it applies by means of a threefold check. First 
the ordinary form of licence, that for a" block, is valid for a certain 
period, during which the licensee has a virtual monopoly of that block. 
Secondly, there is the definite limit to the number of certain species 
that may be shot in a year by one licensee. The third and perhaps 
most important check is the limit to the number that may be shot in 
one block — it varies of course according to conditions, but when the 
number fixed for any block is reached in respect of a particular species 
no more of that species may be shot there for the rest of the year. 
These provisions seem sufficient to counteract over-shooting on licence. 
Obviously their effectiveness depends a good deal on co-operation on 
the part of sportsmen, for instance by reporting any cases noticed of 
unauthorised shooting or other breaches of the law and by furnishing 
correct returns of their own 'bag'. Such co-operation though occa- 
sionally an individual may be neglectful about his return, can for the 
most part be counted on. 

All this has so far worked very successfully. I do not know that 
many bears are shot in the Southern Circle, perhaps not enough to 

3 



THE BOMBAY PRESIDFNCY (BOMBAY STATE) 55 

warrant a limit being placed on the number assigned to a licence, but 
it is to be remembered that they were once fairly numerous in Thana 
and have disappeared from that district. They are nervous creatures 
and apt to be hasty in action if startled, but generally speaking do 

no harm. 

* * * * 

(2) Northern Circle (Abridged) 

Khandesh — or East Khandesh, was better off than Thana. The 
bison had gone, but there were plenty of sambar, and, in practically 
the only locality in the district in which they were found, there was 
a pretty good stock of cheetal. At one. time cheetal had diminished 
considerably in number through over-shooting but owing to measures 
taken by Mr. Simcox "a short open season, a limit of one head per 
licence, and the prohibition of any form of hunting than stalking on 
foot, or, more accurately, * still-hunting,' they recovered rapidly, and 
in a few years were again numerous". 

It is remarked that the motor car has changed conditions and it 
will be necessary to introduce the "block" system as in the Southern 
Circle. "Tf the 'block' system can be worked in Khandwa it can be 
equally well worked in Khandesh, and unless it is introduced in Thana 

I doubt if effective protection is possible there." "If the Thana 

forests to take that district alone — were divided up like those of Kanara 
it should be possible even now (1933) to increase the head of sambar 
and cheetal (bison 1 am afraid are past praying for) by systematic closing 
of a certain number of blocks in rotation, for as long in each case as 
the results observed from year to year showed it to be necessary, the 
areas open to shooting having of course each its own annual limit as 
in the Southern Circle. An obvious advantage- of the system over 
the old one is appreciable simplification for the already hard-worked 
Forest Officials of the task of supervision. 

Sanctuaries 

To sum up, the system of licensing that is in force in the Southern 
Circle having so far pro'ved on the whole adequate there for its purpose, 
its extension to other parts of the Presidency where there are consider- 
able tracts of forest in fairly regular request for shooting seems desirable. 
In fact I can see no other means at present available by which the gradual 
disappearance of the species most generally sought after may possibly 
be stayed, or the stock increased. Nor can I think of any further mea- 
sures in supplement that would be feasible. The establishment, for 
instance, of sanctuaries on the lines of the African Game Reserves 
(but of necessity on a smaller scale), which I have seen advocated for 
some parts of India, and which may (though I doubt it) be a practical 
proposition for them, is manifestly out of the question for Bombay, 
and likely to be so for a long time to come. Expenditure pn a special 
establishment to look after them could never be justified, and the 
burden of supervising much larger areas closed to shooting, which 
would consequently fall on the forest staff, would be made no lighter 
for them — rather the contrary — by the absence as a matter of course 
of licensed sportsmen. Sanctuaries indeed other than those of 
manageable size provided under the rules by temporary closures of 
blocks, plus such natural ones as still exist in parts of different districts 
by reason of inaccessibility combined with climate, might very well in 
(he end prove to be no sanctuaries at all. 



56 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

Wild Animals in Non-Forest Areas (Abridged) 

"Local poachers may be acquitted of blame. The others, 

from time immemorial. .. .have wandered from one place to another 
—a gang of them does not want to camp long anywhere, and could 
not if it would, for they are 'criminal tribes' and the Police see to it 

that they move on Antelope and gazelle (blackbuck and chin- 

kara) when I left India had begun to disappear from many places where 
they used to be numerous, and doubtless the process continues." 

Protection in Non-Forest Areas 

The difficulty of dealing with this comparatively recent departure 
is plain, and I must confess I can see no very efficacious way of doing 
it. Certain measures can of course, and should, be taken, but it is 
one thing to prescribe rules and penalties, and another to secure' their 
operation, with no particular agency for the most part to rely on. Still, 
the knowledge that they exist might count for something. 

So far little or nothing seems to have been done to limit killing 
of the species 1 am now considering. Yet they are clearly no less 
property of the State than the forest-dwelling species to protect which 
elaborate regulations are in force. The State is — in theory at least — 
the owner of all land in a rayatwari Province, with unimportant excep- 
tions, and, as a corollary, of all game to be found on it. If indiscrimi- 
nate slaughter of game animals elsewhere than in Government Forests 
cannot be stopped altogether — and doubtless it cannot — yet it is time 
and more than time for some attempt to be made to delay its progress 
by rendering certain acts illegal. 

A licence for the possession of a rifle can be granted for the pur- 
pose of self-protection, of crop-protection, or of sport, for all three 
purposes, or for any two of them. For self-protection a rifle is with 
rare exceptions unnecessary and unsuitable, and for crop-protection 
smooth-bore guns are the most that is needed. Remains sport. In 
the first place, then, when that is the ostensible object, the licence should 
prescribe certain definite restrictions on the species of game, and the 
number of each, allowed to the holder during the period for which it is 
available, The fee for it should be raised to an amount sufficient to 
emphasise its dual character — fire-arm and game licence: it should 
apply only to non-forest lands in the district for which it is issued, all 
fodder reserves or 'Kurans', whether in charge of Forest or of Revenue 
officials, being excluded: and the species allowed should be only those 
usually or frequently found outside the main forest tracts — in this 
Presidency blackbuck and chinkara, but not cheetal. Further, the 
licensee should be required, like the holder of a licence issued under 
the Forest Act, to furnish a return of what he has shot within the 
period of his licence. Such returns, on which very little reliance could 
' be placed, — but they should be required all the same — could be rendered 
most conveniently perhaps to the Mamlatdars of the licensee's 'home' 
talukas. 

So much for the licence to own a rifle (or gun) for sport, and the 
conditions to which it should be subject. The next thing to consider 
is the motor— rprivately owned, or public conveyance. It should be 
definitely forbidden, under pain of an adequate fine, to shoot from, 
or from the cover of, any kind of motor vehicle, and more especially 
to shoot by the aid of motor head-lights. J believe this prohibition 

5 



THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY (BOMBAY STATE) 57 

already obtains in forest areas. The provision that no shooting at all 
should be allowed from or within a certain distance of a highway should 
be added in supplement, but it must be admitted that in any case, since 
cars can be — and are — taken over the roughest tracts across country, 
it would in practice be chiefly the users of public conveyances that these 
prohibitions would affect. Still, that would be something. 

The last measure of those that I can think of is that to which I 
referred further back. The sale and purchase of meat or trophies 
of any kind of game animal, and not only such as can be brought within 
the definition of 'Forest produce', should be made illegal, and the 
penalty should be heavy enough to make both buyer and seller cautious. 
It goes without saying that the bribery of subordinate officials, by the 
present for instance of part of the meat of an animal shot, is 'illegal 
gratification', and it is equally clear that it is an offence nearly im- 
possible to detect: — information offered by a jealous rival is about 
the only means by which it is ever brought to light. 

The Motoring Poacher 

It was in this context that I mentioned that it was time to get 
ready for another kind of 'poacher' — one very different from and a 
good deal more efficient than the resident ^variety — and this brings me 
back to the forests, where he has already arrived, though he has not 
as yet perhaps done very much execution on the whole. The opening 
up by means of roads for the exploitation of timber of more and more 
of the high forest areas puts more and more places that were previously 
hardly accessible within reach of the man who can command the use 
of a motor car. So far not much advantage seems to have been taken 
by the unlicensed shikari of roads other than the main Public Works 
routes that run through forest land, and little damage has been done to 
species other than cheetal — the most 'get-at-able' for the motoring 
'poacher' — but quite sufficient, I am told, to them in some places to 
give reason for anxiety. If he widens his sphere of operations by taking 
to Forest roads other species may suffer, but it should be easier to 
obstruct him here than on the public routes — he will be more noticeable 
and less mobile, and there is greater likelihood of his falling in with 
some of the Forest Staff. On the main roads I think the most that 
Forest Officers can generally do is to keep these gentry moving, but 
the illegality of shooting without licence should be emphasised by 
adequate punishment of the offender when he does happen to be 
brought to book — including attachment of his gun or rifle, which may 
be unlicensed, or if licensed has probably been brought outside the 
district for which it is licensed. Ordinarily of course a licence to possess 
a rifle — or even gun — for sport should not be valid beyond the bound- 
aries of the district in which it is sanctioned. 

If distance and the offender's mobility combine to render the 
already hard-worked Forest official's task difficult in this rdspect by 
day, at night it will still more seldom be possible to catch the poacher 
in the act of poaching — he can get away too quickly. The most that 
can be done is to watch likely places for him at occasional and irregu- 
lar intervals — a constant or regular patrol is out of the question — and 
trust that the knowledge that he may be looked out for, and if caught 
will be severely punished, will impair the accuracy of his aim. It must 
always be remembered that this sort of duty is not only arduous and 
discouraging in its results, but may at times be dangerous. It is a good 



58 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

deal to ask of a lonely Forest Guard that he should outbluff an armed 
and probably truculent man — perhaps two or three men — and he may 
well be excused if he sometimes looks the other way. 

Agencies for the Protection of Wild Animals 

If things are thus difficult for the Forest Staff in their domain il is 
clear that the Police — the only agency to all intents that we have in 
the very much larger non-forest areas — cannot be expected to do much 
in the way of enforcing the measures I have suggested. Inspection 
of fire-arms licences comes within" the scope of their duties under the 
Arms Act, and that is almost all they can do. If a constable witnesses 
or is told of a breach of any of the rules — supposing that something 
like what I have indicated is done — -he will, it may be hoped, report it, 
and the charge against the offender may be substantiated, but evasion 
is likely to be easy. The Police have too much to do otherwise for it 
to be possible to put any of them on special duty as gamekeepers. 
Local public opinion, what there is of it, will probably be on the side 
of the offender rather than of the law." If there were large zamindaris 
in this part of India the problem would be easier, for some measure 
of non-official assistance could then be looked for, and perhaps local 
associations formed, as I believe has been done elsewhere 

These species will not have been exterminated of course. Black- 
buck when hard enough pressed take to the forests, and chinkara are 
always partly forest-dwellers, being found when undisturbed mostly 
on the border-line. ^ln forest limits both can, like other species, find 
present sanctuary, and perhaps indulge the hope of returning some 
day to their old haunts. 1 said further back that the formation o ' 
larger sanctuaries than what the Forest Game Laws afford, to be looked 
after by a special department, were out of the question in Bombay for 
financial reasons. 1 add here my definite opinion that for forest areas 
they are also unnecessary. The officers concerned have managed the 
laws for the protection of game in their own sphere of authority effi- 
ciently, and can be trusted to do so in the future, so long as their dis- 
cretion is not unduly interfered with. The example of Africa, some- 
times cited, is clearly no precedent for India — I need hardly set forth 
the reasons, for that would be to elucidate the obvious. The motor 
car is likely, it is true, to be an increasing embarrassment, but a special 
Game Department would be, as far as I can see, in no- better case 
than the Forest Staff for dealing with it. However, T am wandering 
into an academic discussion — a Game Department is anyhow not a 
practical proposition for Bombay. 

If any rules and prohibitions on the lines of what I have suggested 
have been enacted already, or are in contemplation. I am sorry for 
my superfluousness, and can only plead that it is five years since I left 
India, and that I should have been glad if some one with up-to-date 
knowledge had been induced to write this article, instead of me. If 
not, 1 need only say that except on some such basis I can see no way 
of reducing even to a slight extent the super-abundance of fire-arm — 
and especially rifle — licences, or dealing with that infernal invention — 
how happy we were, game included, without it ! — the motor car, and 
not even a distant hope of restoring to the country-side one of its most 
characteristic ornaments — blackbuck feeding confidently within view 
pf the highway. 

7 



3. (d) ASSAM 

By A. J. W. Milroy , 
Conservator of Forests, Assam 

The question of affording adequate protection to game in Assam 
is a difficult one that we cannot expect will receive much local attention 
just now with so many important political changes staged for the 
immediate future, but in view of the imminence of these inevitable 
changes in administration it might be undesirable to postpone any 
longer the consideration of what system of preserving the fauna, whether 
the present one or something on different lines, will be most likely to 
survive the introduction of provincial autonomy. 

Up to thirty years ago there were still very extensive unoccupied 
tracts in the Province, the first to disturb them being Gurkhali buffalo- 
keepers who began then to invade Assam with their herds, to be followed 
by ever-increasing hordes of immigrants, after the Brahmaputra Valley 
had become linked to Bengal by the railway. 

Rules regarding close seasons had been framed at an early date 
for the Reserve Forests in conformity with practice in other parts of 
India, but game remained entirely unprotected in the waste lands known 
as Unclassed State Forests, until aout 1910 when close seasons were 
introduced following a letter to The Times by Sir Harry Johnston on the 
indifference shown by Provincial Governments in India to the fate of 
their wild animals; but as no fees have ever been charged for shooting 
in the unclassed Forests, there have been no funds for the maintenance 
of a special patrolling or protective staff, and the protection afforded 
by the rules alone has consequently been very meagre. 

Types of Game Country 

Enormous areas of grass and reeds used to extend from the banks 
of the Brahmaputra towards the hills which enclose the valley on both 
sides, and it was here that most game used always to be found — rhino- 
ceros, and swamp deer in the low-lying places, elephants, bison and 
other deer nearer the hills — but these are precisely the very localities 
that attract the buffalo-herdsmen and the settlers, so that a great deal 
of this type of jungle has now disappeared for ever and it is only a 
matter of time before the most of the balance goes too. In these 
circumstances the policy adopted a few years ago of issuing gun-licences 
almost indiscriminately has only accelerated what was bound eventually 
to take place, and what has already occurred in all countries suffering 
from, or blessed (as the less far-sighted hold) with an increasing human 
population. 

Most of the former great shooting grounds are thus being occu- 
pied exclusively by Man and nothing can be done in them for wild 
animals. There remain for consideration the Reserve Forests, which 
have been taken up mostly for timber, but which include as Game 
Sanctuaries two important grassy areas. 

Dense, evergreen forests contain comparatively little fodder 
suitable for game animals, which prefer the more open and the 
deciduous tree forests, but everywhere in Reserves reasonable game 
preservation should be looked for, seeing that the sale of shooting 
permits is a possible source of revenue, that rules exist for the benefit 
Of the various species of animals, and that a Forest Staff is provided by 

I 



60 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

Government to uphold these and other Forest Laws. It must be con- 
fessed, however, that in Assam just as in Burma, judging from some 
recent Annual Forest Administration Reports from that Province, game 
preservation is largely a matter of individual whim, and that encouraging 
results obtained by one Divisional Forest Officer are only too often 
dissipated during the regime of a successor, who is indifferent to this 
side of his multifarious duties. 

The Assam Legislative Council have recently declared Rhinoceros 
horns to be forest produce wherever found, it has become much easier 
to deal into the trade in these, as horns are now liable to seizure unless 
their possession can be satisfactorily accounted for. No help from 
the centre, however, can make up for lack of interest on the part of the 
officers on the spot, though an enthusiastic Conservator can do much 
to overcome apathy, thanks to the tradition of loyalty in the Forest 
Service, but to be really effective he must possess both the time and 
the inclination to tour 'off the map' and away from the usual com- 
fortable, stereotyped marching routes. 

At the worst a certain amount of game of most sorts will linger 
on in the larger Reserves for some time yet, but not in the smaller ones 
which can be easily raided, and from which animals are always straying 
into settled lands bristling with guns: at the best, if the Forest Depart- 
ment does not depart from the policy of recent years as regards Forest 
Villages and as regards demanding the co-operation in these matters 
of its subordinates, quite a fair number (in some places sufficient to 
allow of restricted shikar) of the more interesting species will survive 
in suitable localities within the forest boundaries. 

Increased pressure on the outside land being likely to lead to a 
demand for catastrophic disforestation of cultivable areas inside the 
Reserves, it would appear to be advisable to proceed cautiously, when 
and where needs be, with the formation of Forest Villages, especially 
of non-resident villages which luckily for wild animals are preferable 
from the utilitarian point of view, as they do not waste good forest 
land in hamlet sites and cattle-grazing grounds. Forest Officers in 
Assam will always be dependent on elephants for getting really inside 
their forests, and this again is lucky for the game, because it is essential 
permanently to set aside from settlement adequate and inviolable ele- 
phant-grazing grounds while there is yet time, for want of which pro- 
vident measure other Provinces have had to plant fodder at considerable 
expense for their Government elephants. 

It would be illogical to allow villagers to grow crops in a forest 
and then to withhold from them the means of guarding the same, but 
the practice lately enforced of calling in guns for safe custody after 
the harvest is over is only logical and reasonable, and prevents the 
villagers from degenerating into professional poachers, as some of 
them have become in the past. 

It had been intended, in order to obtain complete control, to acquire 
ori behalf of Government all the guns owned by Forest Villagers for 
temporary issue at the right time, together with any others that might 
be necessary, but this measure has had to be postponed until funds 
become available again. 

Game Sanctuaries 

The two Game Sanctuaries of which mention has been made are 
situated, the Monas towards the north-west on the Bhutan frontier 

2 



ASSAM 61 

and the Kazirunga in the centre of the valley on the south bank of 
the Brahmaputra. Both areas were originally selected for the Great 
One-horned Rhinoceros (R. unicornis) they contained, and a very fine 
stock of these animals was raised as the result of the protection afforded. 
Kazirunga. the more low-lying, is particularly suited for buffalo too, 
the Monas for bison along the Bhutan boundary. 

The rhinoceros, our most important animal from the natural 
history point of view, is a difficult species to preserve even though 
its destruction is forbidden by law, because all parts of its body may 
be eaten even by Brahmins and because its horn is reputed throughout 
the East to possess aphrodisiac properties, while it lays itself open to 
easy slaughter by its habit of depositing dung on the same heap day 
after day. The demand for rhinoceros'' horns has always been consi- 
derable iii India, but of recent years China has also been in the market, 
consequent on the practical extermination of R. sondaicus in Lower 
Burma, Tenasserim, etc., with the result that a horn is now worth just 
about half its weight in gold. The prospect of a lucrative business 
led to an organization being formed for passing on rhinoceros' horns 
and elephant tusks to Calcutta, and the disturbed political conditions 
provided the virile Boro tribes (Meches and Kacharies) living near the 
Monas with the opportunity to take up poaching on a large scale, 

The operations of the financiers in the background were checked 
for the time being; the advent of the Assam Rifles restored order; 
additional game-watchers were engaged, and an Assistant Conservator 
was placed in charge of the Sanctuary to carry on the good work, but 
in view of what has happened in Burma, despite the best efforts of the 
authorities there, one cannot be confident that the fight we are putting 
up will not prove in the end to be a losing one if we merely continue 
on present lines. 

A fundamental obstacle to success lies in the difficulty of Identi- 
fying poachers unless these are actually caught in Flagrante delicto, and 
this must always be a rare occurrence when members of a gang have 
only to separate and run a few yards into the high grass to evade 
capture. 

The author pointed out that the two Sanctuaries (Monas and 
Kazirunga) need roads and camping huts to make them accessible and 
attractive to visitors, and parts of the former opened to shooting with 
strict supervision and with very high fees. "It is felt that in this way a 
healthy publicity would be assured because any one coming up to shoot 
or to photograph would have plenty to say if game was found to be 
very scarce, also that the sanctuary would be put upon a paying basis. 

It is permissible to believe that the sanctuaries might have some 

chance of survival if they could be made more or less self-supporting — 
but precious little otherwise, and the question is one on which we may 
feel sure, advice from the Society from the depths of its experience 
would not be resented. "The Assam of the future may very well be 
proud to think it is taking its stand by the side of other civilized countries 
in saving its fauna from extinction." 

Balipara Political Area 

Apart from the two Sanctuaries mentioned previously, the rhino 
have one remaining refuge, namely, the Balipara Political Area. Here 
some very valuable protection has been afforded to this animal in one 
area by a planter who is an enthusiastic game preserver. Efforts should 

3 



62 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIEL IN INDIA 

be made now to enlist the sympathies of the authorities who will have 
to guard the welfare of frontier tracts for many years to come, and who 
will doubtless welcome more extended interest being taken in a matter 
that has now become of world-wide importance to naturalists. 

The specially favourable factors in the case of the Balipara Political 
Area are: — 

(1) It will permanently remain outside the influence of the new 
reforms. 

(2) It consists very largely of Forest Reserves, which contain 
a number of rhino haunts, Gohpur, the Diputa, Gabharu and Sonairupa 
Rivers and, if buffalo-grazing was stopped, the Bor Dikrai. 

(3) The tract is under a Political Officer who is provided with 
summary powers and the means of upholding them. 

The possibilities here are obviously great, and the opportunity 
of achieving something permanent seems too good to be neglected. 

Type of Game 

By way of conclusion some interesting particulars and observa- 
tions regarding "some of the species found in Assam are given by 
Mr. Milroy from the abundance of his knowledge and experience. 

There is much regarding the Elephant — Rhinoceros — Wild Buffalo— 
Gaur — Swamp Deer — Sambar, — Hog Deer — and Barking Deer; also 
some remarks concerning the Wild Boar and the Pigmy Hog. The Wild 
Dog is also mentioned. 

The Pink-headed Duck which is possibly - extinct elsewhere is 
remarked upon. 

Readers interested should see the complete text of this contribution 
. which has had to be cut down as to non-essentials for want of space. 



3. (e) THE UNITED PROVINCES (UTTAR PRADESH) 

By F. W. Champion 

Deputy Conservator of Forests, United , Provinces 

One among the numerous striking results of the Great War has 
been an awakening all over the world to the fact that wild animals are 
tending to become less and less in numbers in many countries, and 
often species that were common a few decades ago are being, or actually 
have been, entirely exterminated. Most of us who went through the 
War saw far too much of killing ever to want to see any more, and the 
natural reaction has been that a new spirit of sympathy with wild 
creatures has become firmly established in many countries. Wild Life 
Protection Societies are springing up here and there, particularly in 
America and England, and the Society for the Protection of the Fauna 
•'of the Empire is doing great work in trying to "preserve the wonderful 
fauna of the British Empire from further wanton destruction. An 
enthusiastic branch of this Society has been started in India and a very 
good work is being done, but unfortunately it is not receiving so much 
support from Indians as could be desired. Indians, many of whom 
are prohibited by their religion from taking life, should be the very 
first to support such a Society and a number are already whole-heartedly 
doing so, but real mass support has yet to be received. This I believe 
to be very largely due to lack of knowledge of the aims and objects 
of such a Society, and insufficient propaganda, and I am confident that 
much greater support will be received in future as a result of the great 
efforts now being made by the Bombay Natural History Society and 
the various local branches of the Society for the Preservation of the 
Fauna of the Empire, which all who have the slightest interest in wild 
animals should join without a day's further delay. After all, once a 
species of wild animal has been exterminated, no money, no Society, 
no human agency can bring that species back to the world, and delay 
in helping those who are doing their best to save species already threa- 
tened with extermination may mean that help, tardily given, is given 
too late. 

Position of Wild Life 

■\ 

The present position in the United Provinces is, perhaps, not 
quite so bad as in .some other parts of India, owing to the presence 
of a very sympathetic government, an influential Forest Department, 
and great land-holders, all of whom have always remembered that, 
within limits, wild creatures have just as much right to exist a$ the 
human race. The position inside Reserved Forests and in certain large 
estates, which is fairly satisfactory, will be discussed later in this article, 
but iirst the present state of affairs in the ordinary districts will be consi- 
dered. It is the conditions in these ordinary districts, composing 80 
per cent, or more of the whole Province, which are causing so much 
worry to those who are interested in wild life. Frankly the position is 
appalling. The vast increase in gun-licenees which has taken place 
within recent years, combined with the greatly improved means of 
transport, has caused a drain on the wild life of the districts such as 
can end only in the almost complete destruction of any kind or wild 
creature considered to be worth powder and shot. Laws do exist 

1 



64 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

imposing dose seasons, but these laws often are not, and cannot be, 
observed in present-day conditions. Deputy Commissioners and 
Superintendents of Police in some cases do their utmost, but they are 
so over-worked nowadays with political and economical troubles that, 
however keen they may be, they literally have neither the time nor the 
energy to try to enforce unpopular laws, which, by comparison with 
present-day troubles, possibly do not seem very important. Further, 
the responsible officers in a district are very few in number and it is 
quite impossible for them to stop bribery among their often low-paid 
subordinates. A rupee or two or a piece of meat is quite sufficient 
temptation to an underpaid chowkidar not to report an offence under 
a Wild Animals' Protection Act, particularly" as it is often extremely 
difficult to prove such an offence, and, even if proved, a subordinate 
magistrate will generally let off the offender with a purely nominal fine. 
It therefore seems that, in the present state of the country, any Act 
enforcing close seasons outside Reserved Forests, however well it may 
be conceived, is worth.little more than the paper on which it is written. 
In actual fact special efforts are now being made in Hamirpur and 
Meerut Districts, to protect sambar and chital, but it is not known to 
the writer how far such efforts are proving successful. Animals like 
blackbuck and chital and game-birds, both in the plains and particu- 
larly the hills, are literally being wiped out at an increasingly rapid rate 
and one wonders if there will be anything left except monkeys and jackals 
after another two or three decades. There "is one bright spot, however, 
and that is that non-game birds at least are not harried to the same 
extent as in England because the egg-collector is scarce, and the average 
Indian boy, unlike his English confrere, does not amuse himself by 
collecting vast numbers of birds' eggs, only to throw them away in most 
cases as soon as the boy begins to grow up. Taken as a whole there 
is no doubt whatever but that the position in these plains districts of 
the United Provinces is just about as bad as it could be, but one must 
always remember that these areas are very densely populated and that 
really there is not very much room for any considerable numbers of 
the larger game animals, which must tend to interfere with the culti- 
vator and his crops. In any case leopards are found in many places, 
since they are prolific breeders and very difficult to keep in check, and, 
even if more adequate protection were given to the game animals in 
cultivated districts, it is probable that their numbers would still be kept 
down by a corresponding increase in the numbers of leopards. 

Sufficient has now been written to show that the position in the 
cultivated districts is very unsatisfactory, but that increasing popula- 
tion in already heavily populated areas, combined with the present 
political and economic distress, makes it very difficult to make practical 
suggestions for improving matters. What can be done is for large 
land-holders in sparsely populated districts to preserve restricted areas 
really efficiently and noble examples of what a great help to the wild 
life of a country such measures can prove to be is to be found in the 
great swamp deer preserves of Oudh, notably those of the Mahrani 
Saheba of Singahi and of Captain Lionel Hearsey. The former of 
these has been, under careful protection for many years and an area 
of perhaps 20 square miles now contains several thousand head of these 
magnificent deer. A few are shot annually, but the number destroyed 
is almost certainly less than the natural increase, and these public- 
spirited benefactors can justifiably feel that, so long as they maintain 

2 



THE UNITED PROVINCES (UTTAR PRADESH) 65 

their present standard of efficient preservation, there is no fear of the 
swamp-deer following the already long list of fine animals which have 
been exterminated from the United Provinces. 

Reserved Forests 

Now the position of wild animals in the Reserved Forests, of Which 
the writer, being a Forest Officer, has perhaps a specialised knowledge, 
will be considered. Firstly the writer would state most emphatically 
that United Provinces Forest Officers as a class are, and always have 
been, extremely sympathetic towards wild animals. Few are really 
heavy killers and quite a number do not shoot animals at all, beyond 
their requirements for food for themselves or their camp followers. 
An odd individual here and there, both in the present day and in the 
past, has possibly let his sporting instincts drive him into becoming a 
really heavy killer, but the amount of slaughter done by the average 
forest officer in these Provinces is conspicuously small. It sometimes 
happens that disgruntled sportsmen state that Forest Officers are selfish 
or destroy more animals than all other classes put together; but these 
statements are most emphatically untrue and generally have an inner 
history, which reveals the accuser as having some personal grudge against 
an individual Forest Officer, which leads him to make general insinua- 
tions which are totally unfounded. None could be keener on the 
preservation of wild life than the present writer, and, if he thought that 
his brother officers were indifferent to the preservation of wild animals, 
he would not hesitate to say so. The writer believes that it would be a 
great mistake to remove the wild animals inside Reserved Forests from 
the protection of the Forest Department and place them in charge of a 
separate Game Department. The present system is working very well 
and such action would be regarded as a slur on Forest Officers and would 
alienate the all-important sympathy of the powerful Forest Department. 

The United Provinces Reserved Forests are not very extensive and 
they are all under the personal supervision of Divisional Forest Officers. 
Poaching does occur to a limited- extent, particularly during the mon- 
soon when the forests have to be deserted owing to their unhealthiness, 
and from motor cars, but such poaching is not very extensive and every 
effort is made to keep it in check. • Elaborate rules, which are constantly 
being amended, do exist for the issue for shooting licences, for the 
enforcement of close seasons, and for helping " any species which is 
tending to become scarce. These rules may not be perfect — -no rules 
ever are — but at least their object is to provide shooting for all who 
apply in the right way, and at the same time to preserve the wild animals 
in perpetuity without letting them increase to such an extent as to 
become a nuisance to forest management or to surrounding villagers. 
Species that, for any particular reason, need help are entirely protected, 
examples being wild elephants for many years and Sambar in Lansdowne 
division since an attack of rinderpest in 1927; and senior forest officers 
are always ready to listen sympathetically to applications for protecting 
particular animals in particular tracts. Even tigers now have a close 
season and are not allowed to be shot by artificial light. Some may 
argue that it is a wrong policy to protect tigers, but at least such pro- 
tection shows that forest officers consider that even tigers have the 
right to live in their own jungles. 

On the other hand some wild animals, such as deer, do seriously 
interfere with the management and revenue of valuable forests, and 

5 3 



66 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

the forest officer cannot allow deer to increase to an excessive extent. 
In some cases, particularly where the balance of nature has been upset 
by the excessive destruction of carnivora, deer have become a positive 
pest, and it has proved necessary to reduce their numbers. Or again, 
the proportion of hinds may have become excessive, with consequent 
deterioration in the size of the stags, so tbat some of the hinds have 
had to be shot off; but such destruction is stopped as soon as the posi- 
tion becomes normal once again. It is true that individual forest 
officers, keen silviculturists who have found all their efforts at improving 
the forests ruined, have occasionally advocated the total destruction 
of deer; but it is not the general opinion that such drastic measures 
are required and interesting experiments are now in progress by which 
considerable areas, in which plantations or efforts at obtaining natural 
regeneration of valuable trees are in progress, are entirely closed with 
game-proof fencing, which keeps out the deer. Such fences are some- 
what expensive in initial cost, but they can be moved from place to 
place as required and are probably the best solution for managing forests 
both in the interest of the forester and also of the indigenous wild life. 
It is sometimes stated that, even in the reserved forests, wild 
animals are much scarcer than they used to be. The writer cannot 
speak for 30 or 40 years ago since the old records are not clear and 
he was not in India at that time; but, even if the head of game had 
diminished, it is possible that the numbers were excessive in the past 
or that the memories of those who claim that animals are disappearing 
are a little at fault. After all, most of us tend to think of the 'good 
old times', although it is possible that those times were not quite so 
good as they now appear in perspective. An effort has been made 
to collect figures of animals shot in the past with those shot nowadays 
for comparison, but records of 30 or 40 years ago do not give the infor- 
mation requireed. The following are the conclusions that the writer 
draws from the figures that are available:— 

(a) Taken as a whole the head of game shot recently has gene- 
rally not shown any marked decrease, except in the mountain reserved 
forests, where control is not so easy; 

(b) Tigers appear to have increased and marked decreases seem 
to have taken place in the numbers of nilgai, kakar, wild-dog and black- 
buck. The decreases are partly due to serious floods and rinderpest 
epidemics, and are probably natural fluctuations which will right them- 
selves in time. Wild' dogs have decreased owing to the large reward 
paid for their destruction. 

(c) The decreases in the number of some animals shot recently 
are due to the removal of rewards as a measure of economy. 

(d) It must always be remembered, however, that the number 
of animals inside Reserved Forests is probably being artificially swelled 
by the influx of refugees from the appalling conditions at present pre- 
vailing outside. This influx will decrease as animals outside become 
exterminated. Also modern rifles are so good and shooting with the 
help of a motor car is so easy, that probably a greater proportion of 
the existing animal population is shot annually nowadays than was 
the case in the past. 

(e) The Forest Department watches these lists carefully and 
takes action whenever such action appears to be required. 

(/) The general impression of senior forest officers is that, 
although there have been considerable fluctuations in particular areas, 



THE UNITED PROVINCES (UTTAR PRADESH) 67 

the game in the United Provinces Reserved Forests as a whole has not 
markedly decreased during the last 25 years, except in the high hill 
forests. 

To summarise, the present position of wild animals inside the 
Reserved Forests of the plains and foot-hills of the United Provinces 
does not give cause for serious anxiety, except for the ever-increasing 
use of that arch enemy of the wild animal — the motor car. The 
numbers of wild animals in the mountain reserved forests appear 
definitely to be decreasing. The position in some zemindari estates 
is good and in others poorer; and the position in the ordinary districts is 
almost hopeless. 

Some Suggestions 

The writer would make the following suggestions to help the present 
state of affairs: — 

(a) Public opinion 

This is by far the most important of all methods of wild life con- 
servation, and, without it, all efforts to preserve wild creatures will 
prove abortive. Good work is already being done by propaganda and 
by lectures, but much more remains to be done. Good illustrated 
books help greatly and the formation of sanctuaries and national parks, 
where the general public can see wild animals in their natural state, 
would all help. Major Corbett as local Secretary of the United Pro- 
vinces Branch of the Preservation of the Fauna of the Empire Society 
is doing a lot to assist in this work. 

(b) Laws 

It is much easier in the present state of India to pass a law than 
to see it enforced, but the writer would greatly like to see laws passed 
on the following points: — 

(1) Sale of shikar meat, trophies, etc. — It is of vital importance 
that a law be passed at an early date totally forbidding the sale of any 
portion of a wild animal, with certain definite exceptions. Such excep- 
tions would be the dropped horns of deer, and the hides of deer where 
numbers have to be reduced. Special licences should be issued in such 
cases and such licences, liable to cancellation at any moment, should 
be under the personal control of the Divisional Forest Officers, where 
reserved forests are anywhere near, or under Deputy Commissioners 
where there are no forest officers. The sale of any shikar trophy 
should be entirely and absolutely prohibited. Such a law, properly 
enforced, would finish the professional poacherj and would end the 
nefarious dealings of certain taxidermists who sell shikar trophies to 
those 'sportsmen' who are incapable of bagging anything themselves. 

(2) Limitation of gun licences. — This is very difficult in the pre- 
sent political state of the country, but at least greater efforts could be 
made to differentiate between game licences and licences for the pro- 
tection of the crops, person, property or display. Gun licences for 
the protection of crops should insist that barrels should be sawn-off 
short, as such licences are very largely applied for when the real object 
is poaching. 

(3) Motor cars (and also carts and tongas). — The shooting of 
any wild animal from, or within, say, 400 yards of a motor car, cart 
or tonga, either by day or by night, should be made an offence liable 
to prosecution. The writer" personally would like to stop motor cars 
altogether from entering Reserved Forests, or, where this cannot be 



68 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

done, he would like to place check-chowkies at the entrances and exits 
of such roads, the cost to be covered by a small wheel-tax. Fire-arms 
would either have to be deposited at such chowkies or would be sealed, 
so that they could not be used while inside the forests. The excuse of 
requiring fire-arms for protection en route should not be accepted, 
as passengers in motor ears very rarely need protection from wild 
animals, except possibly from occasional rogue elephants or man-eaters. 
Luckily recent economies have resulted in the abandoning of some of 
the motor-roads i n the Reserved Forests of the United Provinces. The 
writer would like to see them all abandoned ! The old time shikari 
or Forest Officer managed perfectly well without them, and they tend 
only too often to make his modern successor slap-dash and lazy. 

(4) Protection of rare stragglers. — It occasionally happens that 
a rare animal, such as a rhinoceros, strays into Reserved Forests from 
Nepal or elsewhere. Such animals should be rigidly protected with 
a fine of, say, Rs, 2,000, or imprisonment, for their destruction. The 
excuse that 'If I don't shoot it, someone else will' should never be 
accepted in such cases, The recent law passed in Bengal for the pro- 
tection of the rhinoceros, should be extended to the whole of India. 

(5) Rewards. — The writer considers that Government rewards 
for destroying wild animals should be given far more sparingly than 
in the past. Luckily, recent economies have resulted in a great reduc- 
tion in the rewards offered, and it is sincerely to be hoped that such 
reduction will be permanent. Rewards in the past have encouraged 
poachers and have sometimes caused an upset in the balance of 
nature where they were misapplied. They are really quite unnecessary 
except for man-eaters and notoriously destructive creatures such as 
porcupines 

Since writing the above 1 have been reconsidering this question 
and have read up a certain amount of literature on the subject. On the 
whole 1 have little to add to what I wrote before except that 1 am not 
so certain as 1 was that the head of game inside the United Provinces' 
Reserved Forests is not decreasing. I was posted to N. Kheri Division 
in 1921 and I returned there again in 1931. Although still a good place 
for animals in 1931, I would estimate that there, had been at least a 
25 per cent, decrease in nearly all species during that decade. The 
reasons for this reduction I would put down Lo {a) Motor cars making 
shooting far easier than it used to be, (b) the destruction of game in 
the adjoining areas outside the forests resulting in a smaller influx and 
.greater damage to animals straying outside. 

I. am now in Bahraich Division in Oudh, which has a reputation 
of being a good game division. I have now been here for 5 months 
and, so far, I have found game of all kinds to be rather scarce, although 
I. hear that more animals come in from Nepal in the hot weather. The 
reasons for this apparent decrease are the same as in Kheri, i.e., motor 
cars and destruction of animals outside the forests, combined with 
increased poaching along and near the Nepal border 

On the whole I am afraid that there is a distinct doubt that the 
game inside the reserved forests — particularly in Oudh, where motors 
now penetrate to every corner — is so plentiful as it was, although the 
present position does not give rise to the same anxiety as is the case 
with other areas not under the control of. the Forest Department. 



3. (/) THE MADRAS PRESIDENCY (M^DR/^S STATE) 

By R. D. Richmond, I.F.S. {Retired) 

Provisions for the Protection of Wild Life 

In a consideration of the preservation of the fauna of the Madras 
Presidency it is to be remembered that here, as in the rest of British 
India, the State owns large areas which have been constituted Reserved 
Forests and which, if properly administered in this regard, form perma- 
nent abodes for game and other animals. All possible types of country 
are represented and all the larger animals with the exception of the 
antelopes, are thus provided with potential sanctuaries. The habitat 
of the antelope is for the most part the plains and open fields, but there 
are certain areas of reseived forest in which they are able to, and do, 
take refuge. 

The area under the control of the Forest Department i$ some 
16,C0O sq. miles. Under the Forest Act simple trespass is an offence 
and shooting is not permitted except on licence, the grant of which 
is governed by close conditions. Game protection is a definite duty 
of the forest staff and even if the charges are large (the average of "a 
divisional charge is over 500 sq. miles of forest and that of a beat, the 
smallest division is lOsq. miles) the machinery for protection exists. 

Thus the fauna is provided with somewhere to live permanently 
and an organization to protect it, even if the personnel of that organiza- 
tion is small and sometimes neglectful of this particular item of its 
duties. But while there can be no chance of the 16,000 sq. miles of 
Reserved Forest being appreciably reduced there is a danger of compara- 
tively small areas essentially the habitat, or within dangerous proxi- 
mity of the habitat of particular species, e.g., the Nilgiri Tahr and the 
gaur, being alienated and to guard against this a second line of defence 
has been devised, such areas being declared to be game preserves. The 
whole 16,000 sq. miles is of course a game preserve, but the whole of it 
is not essential to the preservation of the fauna and, where certain species 
would find themselves unduly restricted by the alienation of the country 
they exist in, special steps have been taken to preserve it as public 
property. Although any area may at any time be closed permanently, 
or temporarily, to the shooting of all animals, or any particular animal, 
the policy is not to form preserves of considerable area, in which nothing 
may be shot, as it is considered that one of the best methods of control- 
ling poaching lies in the presence of licensed sportsmen. Shooting 
is closely regulated in theory at least; though a licence to cover a 
year's shooting, except in two areas where the shooting is controlled 
by specially formed associations, may be obtained for the very small 
sum of 15 shillings. The number of head of each kind which may be 
shot is prescribed, as is the size of head, the sitting up over water holes 
or in machans is forbidden and modern tendencies have been guarded 
against by the prohibition of shooting from motor cars or with arti- 
ficial light, except in the case of carnivores. Certain animals other 
than those preserved for sport and which were becoming scarce, e.g., 
the Malabar squirrel and the black monkey are specially protected, 
while the shooting of game and other birds is regulated to some extent. 
Orders exist prohibiting the grazing of cattle in areas specially assigned to 
the gaur, this step being taken to save them from contact with rinderpest. 
The grant of rewards for the destruction of wild dogs has been resumed. 



70 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

While the closest attention is paid to certain classes who will not 
ordinarily infringe the rules, it is to be feared that the Indian licence- 
holder, few of whom shoot for sports' sake who pays little attention 
to the conditions of his licence, and who will entrust his gun to other 
parties, is poorly controlled. And .of recent years the policy has been 
to grant licences to possess arms to a greater and greater extent, and 
any one with a gun who lives within reach of areas containing game, 
is a potential poacher. Also a class of licence, that for crop protec- 
tion, is responsible for considerable damage; damage which might 
be mitigated would those responsible consent to the peasant being put 
to the inconvenience of depositing his arm with the police at times 
when there are no crops to protect. A further handicap to game 
conservation is the extremely rapid Indianization of the Forest Service: 
officers of the new class take at present little or no interest in natural 
history, or in the preservation of wild life and, as a rule, other activities 
prevent them from paying sufficient attention to a part of their duties 
with which they are in little personal sympathy. The difficulty is that 
there is no public opinion on the subject of game preservation in the 
country and until this has been created, little will be accomplished. 
The jungleman is principally poacher, for food or to obtain meat for sale. 

The Status of Wild Life 

In the Godavari, where the gaur is probably on the increase, 
chital and sambar are not as numerous as they were: much of the 
damage, strangely enough, being done with the bow and arrow. For 
very many years there has been little game in the Ganjam District, so 
little in fact that the balance of nature is upseli and the district is princi- 
pally notorious for man-eating tigers, The populated north of the 
vast tract of Vizagapatam and Jeypore, which is a Native State, has 
little game left in it, but the sparsely populated south is well off for all 
kinds and is the only place in the Madras Presidency where the buffalo 
is found. Very little of these areas are Reserved Forests. The Eastern 
Ghats are of little interest, except for chinkara at the foot-hills and some 
antelope on the plains. The 2,000 sq. miles of the Nallamalai hills 
contain plenty of game of all kinds and it is strange that the gaur does 
not occur. What are known as the Ceded Districts contain very little 
at the present day. Once the haunt of the elephant, forest destruction 
preceding cultivation, and accelerated by the goat, has had the inevitable 
Jesuit of driving the game away as well as of reducing parts of the 
country almost to the condition of desert. There are however, still 
antelope and chinkara, while sambar are to be found on the hills of 
Cuddapah and Chittoor; in fact there is still plenty of game in the 
latter district, even if the glory of the Chamla Valley has departed — 
due to fewer Europeans visiting it. The Javadi and Salem hills contain 
gaur which are closely protected and which do some damage to forest 
works, but the rest of the game animals are poorly represented. The 
same may be said of the Madura District, principally interesting from 
the fact that a herd of gaur was cut off when the railway was con- 
structed and, well protected, have persisted. The Palni Hills of Madura 
provide representative animals on the slopes, the Nilgiri goat (Hemi- 
tragus hylocrins) on the edges of the plateau (7,000 ft.), while the gaur 
'occasionally visits the plateau. But protection is none too good in 
spite of a constituted game association. Tinnevelly is moderately 
well off and here toothe Nilgiri goat is to be found, though the' numbers 



THE MADRAS PRESIDENCY (MADRAS STATE) 71 

have decreased considerably. The forest area of South Coimbatore 
is famous for the 'Grassy Hills', on the borders of the Cochin State, at 
an elevation of 6,000-8,000 ft.; the Nilgiri goat being common, while 
elephant and gaur are to be found on the open grass. This forest 
division contains in one particular part, the white bison which appears 
to be developing into a distinct variety. 

The North Coimbatore and Kollegal divisions have perhaps suffered 
more than most, including, as they do, so many villages, from the increase 
of poaching; but other and perhaps temporary factors are at work, if 
anything is to be inferred from the varying incidence of the number of 
game animals in a certain locality: Reported in 1893 as denuded of 
game, once very common, the old state of affairs was restored from 1901 
onwards while there is now again complaint of scarcity. Elephants 
have increased to an inconvenient extent in numbers of recent years. 
The forests of Malabar, that is to say the protected areas, for there 
are very considerable tracts of private forest land in which there is no 
protection or shooting regulation, are for the most part exceedingly 
well stocked with game and other animals of all kinds, particularly 
elephant and gaur — the forest areas belonging to Government are more 
compact than elsewhere and there is far less population inside them 
and on their edges^-consequently there is less poaching. 

To judge by the complaints of damage done by wild animals it 
would be supposed that South Kanara teemed with wild life; but such 
is far from being the case, the complaints being in reinforcement of 
agitation for the abolition of the forests. But in the upper hills there 
are sambar and there are a few gaur— also elephants. The tiger, 
accused of killing great numbers of domesticated cattle (and it is a fact 
that the mortality of cattle from wild animals is greater here than else- 
where) is in fact rare, the delinquent being the panther, living in low 
locky hills distant from the real forests, and killing cattle as there is 
nothing else to live on. 

The Nilgiris, a district at elevation from 1,000-8,000 ft., is richer 
in fauna of all kinds than any other. Naturally well endowed in this 
respect, protection in the last forty or fifty years has been good on the 
whole. The shooting is regulated by a Game Association, the members 
of which are those who take out annual shooting licences — these are 
mostly Europeans — and a special protective staff is entertained. The 
Nilgiri Tahr, its habitat is the Nilgiris (north of which the family is un- 
represented until the tahr is found in the Himalayas), Madura, parts of 
Malabar, Cochin, Travancore and Tinnevelly in the extreme south, 
has definitely increased of recent years; sambar. abound on the plateau 
(a beneficial practice is now permitted in the shooting of a limited num- 
ber of hinds), gaur, vulnerable to epidemics of rinderpest frorp. time to 
time, chital and sambar are common on the slopes and lower plateau, 
muntjac are exceedingly common, as are also elephants. Tigers are 
commonly found on the upper plateau. The extension of the planting 
industry has reduced the area available, but there is still plenty of room 
and, whereas certain animals may appear to be reduced in numbers 
from time to time in different places, there seems to be no ground for 
apprehension that game animals are decreasing. A falling off in the 
number of sambar stags shot by licence-holders by no means justifies 
the belief that this deer is becoming more scarce — the fact is that there 
are fewer warrantable stags to shoot for the reason that the best have 
been shot year after year. 

3 



72 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

Recommendations 

There is no need to apprehend that the fauna of Madras is decreas- 
ing to a dangerous extent at present, though it would be idle to pretend 
that there are not forces at work which should be gaurded against. 
Apathy on the part of a new class of officer, who is not interested in 
sport or natural history, and the increased facility with which arms 
may be legally possessed may both be corrected. Public opinion may 
in course of time be developed, though -this will necessarily be a slow 
process and it will be fatal if the impression is formed that the interests 
of the cultivator will not be protected. There is ample room for the 
wild animals in the considerable areas- of forest land which is the pro- 
perty of the state and which need never be alienated, all that is required 
is the determination to make protection effective. 'Preserves', in 
this Presidency at all events, appear to be uncalled for — the whole of 
the forest area is a 'preserve' — and the regulations permit of certain 
parts being closed to shooting either permanently or temporarily. 
'National Parks', if by these are meant areas which are specially pro- 
tected and in which no shooting by the public is allowed, but which are 
maintained so that the public may see and study the habits of wild 
animals, are on a different footing. These should be of great general 
interest and educational value and tend to promote that public opinion 
which is so desirable. A difficulty in connection with these 'National 
Parks', however, is their location; they should be near areas of consi- 
derable population, and be served by roads; also the forest should 
be of a type which allows of the animals being easily seen. It is per- 
haps sometimes overlooked that conditions in different countries vary 
and that what may be suitable in Africa, for example, is inappropriate 
in Madras. 

It will not be easy to find an area which fulfils all the essentials; 
a considerable sum of money will ultimately be required and it cannot 
be expected that National Parks will be self-supporting; but the first 
steps are being taken and it may be hoped that they will bear fruit. 

Suggestions are from time to time heard as to the desirability of 
establishing a separate game department under a Warden. Those who 
advance this view possibly have the conditions of Africa in mind; in 
India there is already an organisation one of the duties of which is to 
protect the animals as in the case of the other contents of the forest — 
■the appointment of a Warden, and some additional staff, would lead 
to dual control and friction: nor is there any need for it. Properly 
controlled and supported, with some strengthening in certain places, 
the ordinary staff of the Forest Department should be well able to do 
what is required. 

But the Department requires greater support. It is essential that 
the authority responsible for the issue of licences under the Arms Act 
should consult the forest authorities on applications, in respect of resi- 
dents in, or near, the forest; that guns concerned in shooting offences' 
be confiscated, that the Magistracy should attach greater importance 
to offences of this class and it is extremely desirable that the sale of 
flesh, at certain seasons should be declared illegal. Finally it is ano- 
malous that the head of the Forest Department should, in theory, be 
unconcerned with this branch of the work of his department, at present 
in the hands of an authority which has no occasion to go into" the forests 
and which is not in any way concerned with other branches of forest 
administration. 

4 



3. (g) COMMENTS ON MR. RICHMOND'S NOTE 

By R. C. Morris, F.Z.S. 

In the note on the 'Game Preservation in the Madras Presidency' 
it is mentioned that there is an area of 16,000 sq. miles providing a 
natural Sanctuary for the fauna with the Forest Department as an 
organisation to protect it, the protection of game being a definite duty 
of the Forest Staff. 

This may be said to apply to nearly every country holding forests 
with a Forest Department to control the same. Although in theory the 
machinery for protection exists, and shooting is regulated, in practice 
it has been found, and I fear always will be found, that Game Protec- 
tion is relegated to the background as Forest Officers find that the 
whole of their time is taken up by other work, in other words, the pre- 
servation of the fauna takes a back seat to the protection of the flora. 
That the Forest Department have failed to afford the necessary protection 
for the fauna cannoi be gainsaid, nor can Forest Officers be expected 
to devote the required amount of time to Game Preservation, how- 
ever interested they might be in the matter, and I am sorry to say that 
in many cases these days there is little interest. 

It is mentioned that areas denuded of game in 1893 were restored 
to the old state of affairs from 1901 onwards. I think it would be 
more correct to have said 'denuded of chital' instead of game. I am 
fairly sure that the author had before him a note written by a Collector 
in 1893, and if I remember rightly this only referred to chital in a 
particular area. 

I do not agree with the opinion that there is no cause for appre- 
hension that the fauna" of the Madras Presidency is decreasing to a 
dangerous extent. This statement covers the whole of the fauna and 
I consider that chital, blackbuck and chinkara have certainly decreased 
to a dangerous extent and will be extinct in South India not many 
years hence unless steps are taken in the matter. The Nilgai in South 
India have already gone the same way. 

I entirely disagree with the opinion that the appointment of a Game 
Warden and special staff for the control of a National Park, Game 
Sanctuary for the fauna in the Ordinary Reserves is unnecessary, nor 
can I see how the present staff of the Forest Department will be in any 
better position to control the fauna, still less a National Park or Game 
Sanctuary, than it has been in the past. I cannot see how any friction 
could arise if the Chief Conservator of Forests controlled both the 
Forest and Game Departments, the Game Warden if required being a 
Forest Officer specially seconded for this purpose as was the lease in 
Burma. To my mind it is quite certain that a Game Department would 
improve matters considerably whether a National Park was established 
or not, and if any doubt exists on this point a visit to Ceylon might be 
made to compare the condition of game in areas under the control 
of the Game Association or Game Department in Ceylon with that in 
the areas controlled only by the Forest Department. 

I do agree with the author in his opinion that the present dual 
control in connection with shooting licences should cease. Shooting 
licences" should be issued by the District Forest Officers (on behalf of 
the Collectors). Further no arms licences should be issued by District 

■ 1 



7 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

Magistrates to people living near Reserved or Unreserved Forests with- 
out the District Forest Officers being consulted in the matter : more 
important still Magistrates should be made to take a far more serious view 
of poaching offences and offences under the Arms Act (illegal possession 
of guns) than they do at present. Punishments meted out to poachers 
are ridiculous: an inveterate poacher is not worried at all at the 
prospect of serving two or three months' imprisonment occasionally. 

The status of Wild Life in the Madras Presidency may be put 
shortly as follows: — 

1. (a) Within Government Forests. 

In one or two districts, take Ganjam for example, there is little or no 
game left. In other districts a few species exist thinly scattered, and 
in parts of the districts of Coimbatore, Malabar, Madura and South 
Kanara game, with the exception of chital and antelope, is still fairly 
plentiful. The reason is not far to seek. These districts hold areas 
which have been difficult of access to the poacher and here game still 
holds its own. Chital and antelope live in country that is easily poached 
and unless early measures are taken chital, blackbuck and chinkara 
will be exterminated in South India not very many years hence, just 
as the Nilgai have been. I say that certain areas 'have been' inaccessible 
to poachers as with modern guns and cheap electric torches the present- 
day poacher is a far more dangerous enemy to game than he was in 
the past. Poachers are now penetrating into parts they have never 
been into before, and it is a certainty that in course of time no part 
of the jungle will be free from the poachers' activities. Take for 
example, the Biligirirangans. Were it not for the presence of Planters 
residing on the hills to put a curb on poaching sambar on the hills 
would be exterminated. At the northern end of the hills, in the Kollegal 
Division far from these Estates, very few sambar are left, most of 
them have been shot out by the Sholagas who hold guns sometime 
back 14 guns were seized in one day, but the Sholagas (hold just as many 
now). In the Mysore part of the hills very few sambar exist although 
the area is known as the Chamarajnagar Game Sanctuary. What 
applies here also applies to other districts with the exception of the 
Nilgiris where the Nilgiri Game Association run a fairly good show. 
In the more accessible tracts of the Coimbatore, Malabar, Madura and 
South Kanara Districts the status of Wild Life is parlous in the extreme. 

The new experimental measure for the compulsory inoculation of 
village cattle in the Kollegal and North Coimbatore Divisions should 
keep bison comparatively free from rinderpest, and it is a measure that 
I should like to see carried out in other districts where bison occur. 

(b) Outside Government Forests. 

Very little game exists, and the remnant is rapidly vanishing. 

2. (a) The species of animals for the protection of which there is 
a special urgency. 

Chital, blackbuck, chinkara, 4-horned antelope and, in some 
parts sambar. 

(b) Animals which do not require vigorous protection but need a 
modified form of protection. 

Bison only should be placed in this category. 

Legislation 

3. The effectiveness of the laws at present in force in various Pro- 
vinces which regulate the killing or trapping of Wild Life in Government 

2 



COMMENTS ON MR. RICHMOND'S NOTE 15 

Forests. Proposals for their improvement where necessary, particularly 
in regard to the use of motor cars, dazzle light, nets and pits. 

The present laws in force in the Madras Presidency would be very 
effective if properly enforced. Suggested improvements are: 

(1) Considerable moderation in the issue of gun licences 
especially in areas adjacent to reserved or unreserved forests; (2) the 
necessity of Magistrates consulting District Forest Officers on all 
applications for arms licences when the applicants reside within poach- 
able distance of reserved or unreserved forests; (3) the necessity for 
far more severe and deterrent punishments on offenders convicted under 
the Forest Laws and the Arms Act; (4) the necessity for District 
Forest Officers to treat the subject of Game Preservation as one of their 
most important duties; (5) stricter rules in regard to the use of motor 
cars for shooting. It is suggested that the Governments concerned 
should prohibit the shooting of large or small game within 100 to 200 
yards of any public road. 

There is already a rule against shooting any animals except the 
carnivores with a torchlight, and I do not think this can be improved 
upon if enforced properly. 

The stricter enforcement of the laws against netting and pitting, 
both of which are carried on in out-of-the-way parts (instances have 
been reported recently), and the prohibition of either netting or pitting 
in unreserved forests. 

4. The control of slaughter of Wild Life outside Government 
Forests. 

This is a more difficult matter, and I am not sure whether Govern- 
ment have any legal right to put forward measures for the control of 
slaughter in private lands. This is probably a case of educating the 
land-owners on the matter. 

5. Legislation controlling sale of hides, horns, etc. 

In the Madras Presidency I do not think there is any legislation 
in force at present prohibiting the' marketing of flesh, hides and horns 
of game animals either in close season or out and such legislation 
should be enacted at a very early date. A law against the export of 
plumage exists; and legislation prohibiting the marketing of all parts 
of game animals throughout the year is very necessary. 

Under the heading of legislation I should like to see the Indian 
Chevrotain or Mouse Deer added to the list of animals completely 
protected, and the use of a shot gun (buck shot) on all deer and antelope 
should be prohibited. 

In Coimbatore a slip is now added to all shooting licences asking 
the licensees to look for and report to the District Forest Officer of 
the Division in which they are shooting all cases of poachers' machans 
on trees, or hides on the ground, over water and salt-licks which they 
may come across and this should be made one of the clauses in the 
Rules attached to shooting liceces. If Government could be persuaded 
to agree to the immediate dismissal of any Forest Guard in whose beat 
an illicit hide or machan is found the would-be poacher would receive 
a tremendous knock, as no Forest Guard is going to risk losing his job 
to help a poacher whatever inducement the latter may offer him. 

Administration 

6. (a) The desirability of definitely laying on the Forest Depart- 
ment the duty of preserving the Fauna and Flora (and not merely trees) 

3 



76 



THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 



in the areas in their charge; (b) the desirability of creating a distinct 
organisation within the Forest Department for the protection of wild 
animals within Government Forests. 

I consider it is definitely desirable to create a special department, 
to be controlled by the Chief Conservator of Forests, for the protection 
of wild animals within Government Reserved and Unreserved Forests, 
The control of both the Forest and Game Departments by the Chief 
Conservator of the Province should remove most causes of friction 
that may otherwise occur between the two Departments, whether the 
Game Warden is a seconded Forest Officer or not. However much 
District Forest Officers are encouraged to treat Game Preservation 
in the proper light this interest is bound to fade again in course of time 
and will only be kept alive by the existence of a Game Department 
with which the Forest Officers will have to co-operate in full. The 
existence of a Game Department is bound to improve matters whether 
National Parks or Game Sanctuaries are established or not. 

7. The formation of National Parks or in the alternative of strict 
Nature Reserves where possible, and 

8. The question of making separate financial provision or the crea- 
tion of a special fund for carrying out the work of conservation. 

If the formation of a National Park in the Madras Presidency 
is considered unfeasible, T do not think the necessity for a separate 
financial provision will arise as a Game Department would presumably 
be financed under an increased Forest Budget; but for the creation of 
a National Park or Game Sanctuaries separate financial provision 
would be required. Two areas do exist in the Madras Presidency 
which could be turned into National Parks provided communications 
are improved, and here the value of having the Chief Conservator of 
Forests as the head of both Departments will be seen, as in one of the 
areas the improvement of communications will assist considerably 
in the extraction of forest produce. In this case the term 'National 
Park' will not be correct as forest work will be carried on in that area, 
and it would be a Game Sanctuary, but in either category the control 
of the fauna in this area should fall on a Game Department, and would 
have- to have a special staff in permanent control special funds for 
financing the work being drawn from the most obvious sources, i.e., 
the revenue derived from: — 

(1) Game licences; 

(2) Licences and permits for sporting arms; 

(3) Import and export licences for the above arms; 

(4) Duty on sporting arms and cartridges; 

(5) Licences to sell or store sporting arms and cartridges; 

(6) Fishing licences; 

(7) Fines and penalties for infringement of shooting rules; 

(8) Fines imposed for offences connected with poaching, etc.: 

(9) Sales of confiscated and picked up trophies and parts of 

game animals and birds (both game and protected). 
The other area is I consider eminently suitable for the formation 
of a National Park and should be self-supporting in course of time. 

General 

9. The position of the Cultivator in relation to Wild Life and the 
provision which might be made for the protection of human life and 
property in the neighbourhood of forests from the ravages of wild beqsts, 

4 



COMMENTS ON MR. RICHMOND'S NOTE 77 

The damage done by wild beasts, other than elephants, is very much 
exaggerated. Elephants do a lot of damage, in fact unless early 
measures are taken to deal with the elephant menace it will be, and has 
been in the. last few years, an intolerable hardship on the cultivator 
whose lands are adjacent to or surrounded by forests in which elephants 
occur. It is suggested that one of the best methods to meet the elephant 
problem is the appointment of three or four salaried men to shoot 
the leading offending bulls at the time crops are being raided.. . .'. 
It is only during the harvest season, or for a month before, "that the 
■damage from elephant occurs. Ivory from elephants shot would be 
handed over to Government and should cover the salaries paid out. 
A strong fence round fields will keep out most of the other animals 
that matter. The protection of human life hardly comes into the ques- 
tion as regards the cultivated areas of the Madras Presidency, except 
it be from elephants, and here again the shooting of solitary tuskers has 
long been advocated being as often as not potential rogues, and now- 
adays many of them are wounded by the muzzle-loading and cheap 
breech-loading guns of the ryots in cultivation 

One of the most important aspects of bird protection should be 
kept well to the fore: the necessity of showing the cultivator where 
he does wrong in killing out many of the species of birds found ori his 
land, and for this purpose an ecological bird survey should be made 
of every Province which will prove of immense value in demonstrating 
the birds that are the friends and the enemies of the cultivator. 

10. Measures to restrict the possession or use of weapons which 
may be used for poaching. 

A great curb to poaching would be the recall of .all guns issued 
for the purpose of crop protection; immediately harvesting is over, 
the issue of weapons to applicants must be curtailed: this is very 
important. 

Rewards should be offered, and paid out promptly, for information 
leading to the seizure of illicit guns, and action taken to recover the 
weapons immediately information is received. What frequently happens 
is this: A Sub- Inspector of Police receives information that an illicit 
gun is to be found (either in a hut, a grain pit, a hay-stack or more 
frequently in a watchman's shelter on a tree). Instead of prompt 
action being taken days elapse before constables are sent to recover 
the weapon and in the meantime it has been removed. To my know- 
ledge' Ibis, has occurred lime and again, the informers get no reward 
or compensation for their trouble, and so give no further information 
in regard to any other weapons they may get to know of. The same 
delay has been experienced over Range Officers taking action when 
illicit machans and hides are reported, even when instructed to proceed 
immediately to the spot by their District Forest Officers. "A few days 
are allowed to elapse before aclion is taken, in the meantime the 
poachers get wind of the matter and Ihe machans or hides are rernoved. 

A Forest Guard should be immediately dismissed if a poaching 
case in his beat is not reported by him. It is suggested that a Monegar, 
Village MunsiffVor Village Headman should be heavily fined if a case 
of illicit possession of arms is discovered in his village or villages under 
his jurisdiction. There is not the slightest doubt that every Village 
MunsifT or Headman knows exactly what arms there are.inthe village 
or villages under his jurisdiction, whether licensed or unlicensed. 



3; (A) MYSORE STATE 
By Major (Lt.-Col.) E. G. Phythian-Adams, O.B.E., F.Z.S. 

The State of Mysore is an elevated table-land varying in altitude 
for the most part from 2,500 to 3,000 ft. above sea-level. The Western 
Ghats rising to some 5,000 ft. bound it on the west and break the force 
of the South-West Monsoon. On the south are the Nilgiri Hills and 
on the south-east the Biligirirangans, the highest point of which is 
about 5,000 ft. above sea-level. In the interior the country is undu- 
lating and in many parts hilly. Generally speaking the northern part 
of the State consists of open plains with occasional rocky hills, the 
centre is the most intensely cultivated, while on the western and south- 
ern fringes are the denser forests. The total area of the State is some 
30,000 sq. miles of which forests cover over one-tenth. The forests 
are divided into: (1) Game Preserves which are closed to all shooting 
and fishing except by special permission; (2) State Forests correspond- 
ing to Reserved Forests in British India where the pursuit of game is 
illegal except on licence; and (3) District Forests which now hold little 
but small game, panthers and wild pig. 

Mysore is the fortunate possessor of a fauna so diverse and varied 
that few other parts' of India can equal it. The extensive open plains 
of the north are the home of numerous herds of blackbuck, which 
extend more or less over all cultivated areas of the State; the more 
broken country holds chinkara and wolves, while Nilgai though un- 
common are still reported to exist in certain parts. The forests con- 
tain herds of elephant and bison, and a good head of sambar and 
spotted deer, while lesser fry, barking deer, wild pig, etc., are common 
in suitable localities. The State contains some famous tiger grounds 
and panthers are ubiquitous though hunting leopards are probably 
now extinct. Bears are fairly common in certain parts and wild dogs 
even more so. The list of indigenous small game includes the Great 
Indian Bustard, Florican, Peafowl, Jungle and 1 Spurfowl, Partridge, 
Sandgrouse (two or more varieties), several species of Quail, Green, 
Bluerpck and Imperial Pigeons, and the Indian Hare, to which must 
be added in the cold weather countless numbers of Snipe, Duck and 
Teal and some Bar-headed Geese, which find rich subsistence in the 
paddy fields and on the irrigation tanks with which the State is so well 
.provided. Apart from game birds Mysore is particularly rich in bird 
ftfe both resident and migrant, and it is to be hoped that before long a 
regular scientific survey of it will be carried out as has been already 
done" in other parts of South India. 

The principal rivers of the State are the Cauvery and Kabbany, 
and on the northern border the Tungabhadra, and there are numerous 
subsidiary streams, all of them holding the snub-nosed crocodile and 
immense numbers of fish: mahseer, carp, murrel, labeo, etc., providing 
hot only excellent sport but also an important item of food-supply to 
the population. 

The above short survey will show how varied the Fauna is, and 
it now remains to compare the past with the present, to consider the 
Game Laws, and to make any suggestions for further safeguarding 
an asset of such importance. 

' 1 



MYSORE STATE 79 

For information about wild life in the State in years gone by we 
are largely dependent on the well-known works of Sanderson and other 
sportsmen. In those days there were apparently no game preserves' 
and one gathers, no game laws either. Big and small game of all kinds 
was plentiful and the bags obtained were certainly larger than would 
be possible now. But already by 1900 a distinct decrease was noticeable 
for Russell writing in that year remarks that: 'One has only to read 
old sporting books and even so comparatively recent a one as 
Mr. Sanderson's and to know the forests as they are at this day, to fully 
• appreciate the terrible rate at which game has decreased and is ever 
decreasing in Mysore'; atid personal enquiries from older residents 
in the State confirm a great decrease of big game in the District 
Forests, and to a lesser degree in the State Forests, though the position 
in the Game Preserves is less unfavourable. 

Due consideration must however be given to the inevitable restric- 
tions imposed on wild life by the opening up of fresh areas to culti- 
vation, the increase of population and consequent increased number 
of arms licences, and improved communications, and means of trans- 
port, and if all these are taken into account, it would be unreasonable 
to consider the present position as unsatisfactory, though certain steps 
are most desirable to prevent further deterioration. 

Elephants which are strictly protected as in British India continue 
to provide sufficient numbers for the famous kheddahs as and when 
required. There is no dearth of bison and good heads are still obtain- 
able. Sambar and spotted deer are still to be found in fair numbers. 
Blackbuck which in some parts were certainly in danger of extermina- 
tion before the War have now largely recovered, thanks to protection. 
Tigers are as numerous as ever in Shimoga and Bandipur though they 
appear to have deserted Sanderson's old shooting grounds on the south- 
eastern border, probably owing to all the deer there having been killed 
off. Panthers continue to be as much a pest as ever. Wild dogs are 
certainly not on the decrease in spite of the reward placed on their 
destruction. Bears seem to have changed their habits to some extent 
and to have become more nocturnal than in Sanderson's time, but 
though harder to find they certainly exist in fair numbers. Wolves 
certainly have decreased, which will not be regretted by sheep-owners 
whose herds used to suffer severely from their depredations. Up to 
about 1914 a few_ were shot almost every year close to the capital but 
a careful search in ^recent years has failed to discover their existence 
within many miles oT the city. Turning to birds the only resident which 
has seriously decreased is the Great Indian Bustard. A_ few pairs 
still exist in favoured localities in the centre of the State, their numbers 
slightly increasing as one goes north, but at the best there are very few 
left and their survival if left longer without protection is most unlikely. 
Great numbers of partridges and junglefowl are snared and sold in 
the towns throughout the year and this unrestricted slaughter is already 
having its effect though there is little fear of their extermination at 
present. Of the migratory birds duck and teal have certainly greatly 
decreased in numbers during the past' ten years but this is a matter • 
hardly within the control of the State authorities though some improve- 
ment might be effected in the case of the spotbill duck and whistling 
teal numbers of which stay to breed locally, were the trade- in their 
eggs made illicit. The shooting pf Demoiselle cranes might 1 well be 
prohibited in certain areas where their pursuit offends the religious 

2 



80 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

prejudices of the inhabitants. Their numbers are so vast that there is 
little fear of their being seriously reduced, but protection seems desirable 
for the reason given, as more than one fracas has already occurred in 
this connection. 

So far as is known the only attempt to introduce exotic fauna was 
the importation of a herd of fallow deer a few years back but unfortu- 
nately the experiment failed as they were quickly killed off by wild 
dogs. There should however be less difficulty in introducing gooral 
which could be obtained without much trouble from the lower Hima-, 
layas and for which an ideal locality could be found in the isolated 
Gopalaswamibetta hill. Such an addition to the fauna would be of 
great interest as at present this species is unknown in South India. 

The Game Laws of the State were revised in 1931 and on paper 
serve as a model of their kind. In general they follow those in force 
in the Nilgiris and other parts of British India, but there are two im- 
portant clauses which strike a new note in Game Preservation in India, 
viz.: (1) classification of tigers as 'game' with an annual bag limit 
of two; and (2) imposing on private owners the necessity for taking 
out a licence before they can shoot game on their own land. The 
damage done by tigers is often much exaggerated and the help which 
they give to the ryot by destroying deer and pig forgotten, and the 
Mysore Government deserves great credit for its bold step in giving 
them some form of protection, an example which might well be followed 
in other parts of India. The clause regarding private lands is of course 
on the lines in force in Great Britain and as such is a distinct advance, 
though it might have made clear the inalienable right of the owner to 
game on private land, a most important point which seems to have 
' been overlooked in other parts of India also, as the private owner can 
do so much to protect the wild life on his land if educated to do so. 

A noticeable omission from the Laws is any clause dealing with 
that modern pest the motor car shooter. Shooting from cars is 
indefensible; it is not sport but slaughter, and far too many animals 
escape to die a lingering death. It has been very rightly banned in 
East Africa with severe penalties, and recently we understand in the 
Bombay Presidency and in the Nilgiris and Mysore which justly prides, 
itself on being an advanced State would do well to follow this good 
example. At present the practice is on the increase, and one hears 
almost incredible stories of bursts of rapid fire at 'herds of bison, of 
animals shot and left to rot by the roadside, and" of lorries specially 
equipped with spotlights for poaching sambar, etc., at night. No 
shooting should be permitted within 100 yards of a car, and heavy 
penalties enforced for breach of this rule. 

As has been said above, the existing Game Laws are a model of 
their kind, but as has been found in other parts of India, it is one thing 
to pass a law and quite another to enforce it. The public generally 
and many even of the subordinate officials appear to have no know- 
ledge of the existence of these laws, far less of their provisions, and 
poaching is widespread and largely unchecked. Public opinion is 
not yet sufficiently educated to realise the importance of the preserva- 
tion of the fauna, and until the scope and purpose of the Game Laws 
are more widely known, it cannot be expected that their provisions 
will be generally observed. Much good would be effected if the subordi- 
nate Government Officials of all Departments concerned were made 
to realise their responsibility in the matter, and this applies with 

3 



MYSORE STATE 81 

particular force to the Forest Range Officers who if they like can put a 
definite stop to all poaching. 

But still more important is the education of public opinion which 
can best be effected by propaganda in the Press, by lectures and nature 
classes in schools and colleges, by the formation of local associations 
for the study and protection of wild life, and by collaboration with 
similar societies already existing in other parts of India. 

Equally important is the creation of a Wild Life Fund to which 
would be credited all revenue from arms licences, shooting and fishing 
licence fees, fines for offences, etc., while the Fund would be used to 
pay rewards for the destruction of vermin, for preventing poaching, 
and for the upkeep of a Game Warden and National Park. At present 
there are in the State no sanctuaries for wild life, though to a certain 
extent the Game Preserves take their place, but a stricter supervision 
is required if these are to fulfil a really useful purpose. It is suggested 
that part of the Bandipur Game Preserve might with advantage be 
turned into a National Park. This area holds a good head of game 
and wild fife generally, and being adjacent to the strictly preserved 
Mudumalai forest under control of the N. G. A. could be easily policed. 
Bandipur lies on the main road some 50 miles equidistant from Ootaca- 
mund and Mysore City, and a well organised Park there should prove 
a great attraction. The existing Travellers' Bungalow could be easily 
enlarged to provide the necessary accommodation. 

There is no doubt that the presence of sportsmen in shooting areas 
is one of the greatest curbs on the activities of the poacher, and more 
encouragement should be given them by reducing licence fees which 
are at present excessive in comparison with the bag obtainable and by 
throwing open to the general public some at any rate of the Game 
Preserves. 

Legislation is also required to prevent the sale of game in the close 
season; this would considerably restrict the activities of the motor 
poacher who shoots solely for gain. 

To .sum up, the present position of wild fife in Mysore is, consi- 
dering all the factors involved, not unsatisfactory; but this position 
will certainly deteriorate seriously in the near future unless steps are 
taken to prevent it, in which connection the following are suggested 
as most important: 

(1) Strict enforcement of the existing Game Laws; 

(2) Education of public opinion in every possible way; 

(3) Formation of a Wild Life Fund; 

(4) Prohibition of all motor car shooting; 

(5) Prohibition of sale of game out of season and control of 

traffic in hides and horns; 

(6) Protection for the Great Indian Bustard; 

(7) Encouragement of genuine sportsmen; and 

(8) Establishment of a National Park. 

Mysore has been blessed by Nature with an unusually rich fauna, 
and every possible step should be taken in time to safeguard it and to 
make its people realise the importance from every point of view of such 
a national asset. 



3. 0) HYDERABAD STATE 

By Salim A. Ali, M.B.O.U. 

The Hyderabad State occupies an area of about 82,000 sq. miles 
of the Deccan Plateau. Its north-eastern boundary adjoins the Chanda 
District of the Central Provinces, renowned among sportsmen of 
the last century as an ideal game country. Hyderabad State at onG 
time, not so very long ago, provided some of the finest big game shoot- 
ing — especially tiger — in India, and even at the present day in spite of 
the penetration and colonization of vast tracts of forest land and the 
consequent depletion of wild life, there still exist in the Dominions 
paits which are in no wise inferior to the best that can be found else- 
where within the Indian Empire. Some idea of the abundance of 
tigers in the last century can be obtained from the fact that the famous 
shikari Col. Nightingale (who died at Bolarum in 1868) alone killed 
during his service over 300 tigers, the majority of which were in 
Hyderabad territory.* 

Status of Wild Life 

The wild life of Hyderabad is as varied as it is interesting. Tigers 
are still "comparatively numerous in the forests of the Eastern and 
Western Circles, which also contain some gaur. Leopards and sloth 
bears are fairly plentiful; sambar, cheetal, muntjac, four-horned 
antelope, nilgai, blackbuck, chinkara, hysenas, wild dogs, jackals and 
wild pig are found in suitable localities, while there still remain a few 
cheetahs or hunting-leopards and wolves. Besides these, porcupines 
and many other species of smaller mammals are found. A few buffalo 
are said to occur in the Eturnagaram Range of the Mulug Taliika 
(Warangal District) but their numbers are very small. The shooting 
of buffalo and gaur has been totally prohibited for some years past, 
owing to which they have, for the time being, been saved from extinc- 
tion. 

In his Reminiscences of Sport in India (published 1885) Major-Gene- 
ral E. F. Burton mentions a herd of twelve wild elephants near ''Percall' 
Lake in 1847, which were said to be descendants of animals that had 
broken loose in the wars about 200 years previously. In 1866 this 
herd had increased to fourteen or fifteen individuals. Nothing is 
knoftfn as to what became of them until the 1 909 edition of the Imperial 
Gazetteer, which stated that there was one single female still left in 
those parts. Despite the above, however, Nawab Hamid Yar Jung 
Bahadur, the Inspector-General of Forests, informs me that no ele- 
phants in a wild state have been heard of in Parka! Taluka within the 
memory of the oldest man living. 

Provision for Protection of Wild Life 

Up to the year 1897 or thereabouts, there were apparently no 
restrictions in Hyderabad against tiger or any other shooting. The 



* It is of interest to note that since this article was written, the heir apparent 
Prince Azan Jah Bahadur and party recently (ca. May 1935) in the course of 
33 days shooting killed 35 tigers, in addition to bears, sambar and other game 
jn the preserves of Pakhal, Mulug and elsewhere. 

1 



HYDERABAD STATE 83 

present Game Regulations came into force from 28 September 
1914. For the purpose of their application, the Dominions are divided 
into four circles which include both reserved and open forests. They 
also include Jagir and Samastan forests as well as the private Game 
Preserves or Shikargahs of His Exalted Highness the Nizam. The 
Paigah Nobles, who have extensive estates (the largest being that of 
Nawab Moin-ud-dowla Bahadur which covers an area of 1,287 sq. 
miles) the owners of Samastans, and the Jaglrdars manage their own 
forests and are entitled to regulate shooting on their private domains. 
The rules relating to close seasons, shooting of does and immature 
animals, and the restriction against shooting buffalo, gaur and hunting- 
leopards are, however, applicable to them. Theoretically speaking, 
therefore, no shooting can be done in the State without either a licence 
from the Government or a permit from the PSigah Nobles, Samastan- 
owners or JSglrdars concerned. 

According to the Game Regulations only one circle is thrown 
open for shooting each year from 1 March to 31 May and again for 
ten days at Christmas. For blackbuck the open season is 1 December 
to 31 May. Only half the number of districts comprising such circles 
are open at a time, and shooting areas in these open districts are also 
defined. Certain areas are thrown open and others closed to tiger 
shooting from time to time depending upon the increase or decrease 
of these animals. 

Forest Areas 

The most important game forests at present are: 
Eastern Circle 

1. Warangal. 

2. Khammam. 

3. Karimnagar. 

4. Nizamabad. 
Western Circle 

1. AsifabSd (formerly known as Jangaon). 

2. Nirmal. 

3. Mahbubnagar. 

In "addition to the above, the forests of Garlah Jagtr and Paloncha 

SamastSn contain big game. 

The three principal Shikargahs of H. E. H. the Nizam are: 

1. Pakhal, situated in the Pakhal and Mahbiibabad Talukas of 

Warangal District and managed by the Forest Department under whom 

there is a special Muntazim or "Warden and a staff of watchers. Area 

345.75 sq. miles. 

2. Saroonagar, and 

3. Alampalh both situated in the Atraf-e-Balda District and 
managed by a special establishment under the Sadrul Moham, Sarf-e- 
Khas Mubarak. 

The Pakhai Preserve contains mostly all the big game animals 
of the State, while the other two which are in open scrub country, have 
chiefly blackbuck, hare, partridge and quail. 

The ShikSrgahs are governed by special rules sanctioned by the 
NizSm. The Pakhal Shikargah was abolished some years ago which 
led to a rapid felling and bringing under cultivation of some of the 
jungles, with a corresponding diminution of wild life. About four 
years ago the preserve was re-established. Though for all practical 



84 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

purposes the area is a sanctuary (H. E H. himself is not keen on shooting, 
and the two elder princes generally shoot there only about once a year 
or so) it is doubtful whether with the exception, perhaps, of tiger, the 
reservation contains as much game as may be expected. The game- 
watchers that I came across when on ornithological survey work in 
this part of the country struck me — most of them — as thoroughly 
inefficient, and information 'supplied by them, wherever it could be 
tested, proved unreliable in nine cases out of ten. From my experience 
*of these men (unfortunately the Muntazim himself had died just a few 
days before my coming to Pakhal) it is not inconceivable that a good 
deal of poaching is tolerated by them, either actively or through indiffer- 
ence or neglect. A proper enquiry alone can show if at the present 
time game is really in any better position here than elsewhere in the 
State forests, if indeed as much. Col. R. W. Burton informs me that 
in connection with the visit of a Viceroy in 1902 or thereabouts, 
Mr. Hankin, the then Inspector-General of Police, and Mr. Biscoe, 
Conservator of Forests, went through the Pakhal country on purpose 
to see what game there was. They told him afterwards that they had 
seen no 'animal', and only one peafowl ! 

Depletion of Game Animals 

In spite of the measures promulgated for the protection and pre- 
servation of the fauna, which theoretically speaking should give adequate 
protection to the existing species, Hyderabad unfortunately is no longer 
the prolific game country it was during the last century, and even during 
the past thirty years there has been a steady and perceptible diminution. 
The chief causes of the decline will be analysed later; in the meantime, 
it is interesting to collate the present conditions with whatever little 
information we can gather concerning the recent past. In the middle 
of last century the country between Hingoli and Bokar (Nander 
District, Western Circle) was famous for tiger and Col. Nightingale 
shot many of his animals there. In two seasons (March- April) 1897 
and 1899, Brigadier-General R. G. Burton of the then Hyderabad 
Contingent, killed twenty-six tigers in Sirpur-Tandur, mostly round 
• Jangaon — the present Asifabad. On his last visit to this district in 
1899 he still found tigers as numerous as ever, and heard fifteen years 
later that they were just as abundant. He always thought there was a 
great breeding-ground of tigers in the stretch of Hyderabad territory 
south of the Peinganga River in the Bela and RajQra Talfikas of the 
Sirpur-Tandur District and sees no reason why it should not now be 
as full of tiger as it was thirty-five years ago. Whatever the reason, 
those conversant with modern conditions in Hyderabad will agree that 
this is unfortunately not the case. The Ajanta Range all along the 
Khandesh border north of Aurangabad to Kannad was also famous 
for tiger in 'the early part of the last century, but now merely harbours 
occasional stragglers. 

there were a few herds of gaur in Sirpur-Tandur in the 1890's. 
One whole herd was reported to have perished from foot-and-mouth 
disease at MSnikgarh. These animals are now very scarce, and though 
I often heard of their occurrence, I actually saw only one pair at fttnoor, 
and from the footmarks I came across in that part of the country they 
were obviously rare. In spite, however, of the total prohibition of the 
killing of these bovines, I came across more persons than one who 
boastfully claimed to have shot them in recent years ! 



HYDERABAD STATE 85 

"In days when cheetal were in vast number in the Kinwat (Berar) 
there were scarcely any in adjoining Hyderabad territory across the 
river. The same with regard to antelope of which there were vast 
herds in Berar, but few over the Nizam's border." 

Jerdon, in the first quarter of the last century, referred to herds 
of thousands of blackbuck in the country around Jalna. According 
to Col. R. W. Burton there were in 1897-1903 blackbuck and chinkara 
along the railway line between Secunderabad and Manmad, but fast 
being wiped out. In 1892 he saw herds of many hundred blackbuck 
when marching through the country. ' In 1903 these herds had dwindled 
to a dozen to twenty, not more. Though still fairly plentiful in some 
of the remoter part- of the Mahrattwada Districts, blackbuck are fast 
disappearing with the advance of colonisation and increasing facilities 
of swift transport, coupled with a complete disregard on the part of 
the man with the gun for age, sex or season. Herds of more than a 
few individuals are now uncommon, and heads of any decent size 
difficult to find. 

General Burton says that in 1895-99 there was plenty of 
feathered game in Hyderabad— Grey and Painted Partridge and Sand- 
grouse. This is now in a particularly bad way and needs speedy and 
drastic measures to restore it to anything like its former abundance. 

My work in connection with the recent Hyderabad Ornithological 
Survey (1931-32) took me to many parts of the country once famous 
for game, and T made a point of investigating as far as possible 
into the present state of affairs. On the whole, it seemed to me 
that compared with accounts of even as recently as thirty years ago, 
the condition is distinctly poor, and this conclusion has since been 
confirmed by the State Inspector-General of Forests. It is true that 
tigers are still' plentiful in certain portions of the Godavari Forest Belt, 
but a rapid diminution in their numbers is inevitable if the present 
attitude of apathy is persisted in and things allowed to drift as now. 
Moving about the country as a non-official outsider, I had many 
opportunities of entering into conversation with people in every walk 
of" life from whom much useful information could be gleaned con- 
cerning the subject. Moreover, once their initial suspicion was allayed 
and they perceived that my interest was chiefly confined to collecting 
birds, they came out with a good deal more about their exploits with 
the larger game animals than it would have been possible to extract 
by direct cross-examination. All I had usually to do was to lead them 
up to a point and leave them to damn themselves ! Even after 
due allowance for bravado and for shikari's tales, the magnitude of 
the wanton destruction of life that goes on everywhere, was manifest. 

What struck me as curious was that in spite oT the formalities and 
obstacles in the way of getting shooting licences and the limits' of bags, 
as prescribed under the Regulations,* almost every man possessing 
a gun boasted of the number of tiger, sambar, cheetal, often gaur 
and other game he had shot and was still continuing to shoot ! The 
more discoursive ones could, with sufficient encouragement, usually 
be made to reveal the objectionable methods they employed, which 
they often did not unmixed with a certain measure of pride in their 
achievements. In the course of my wanderings in the forest at Nelipaka 



• Clause 21 even says ' no application from non-officials will be entertained 
but this I understand is now obsolete. 

4 



86 THE PRESERVATION OV WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

(in the Paloncha Samastan), Amrabad, Otnoor and elsewhere, I con- 
stantly came upon machans built on trees or pits dug round the edges 
of swamps or pools in nullah-beds, etc., from whose concealment these 
relentless gunners slaughtered every animal that came to drink, regard- 
less of the season or whether it was male, female or young. The pity 
of it is that in many cases this destruction is made possible not only 
by a passive connivance of the petty officials who have a share in the 
spoils, but often with their direct abetment. A petty police, revenue 
or forest official who hears guns poppmg off almost every night close 
to his village even in seasons when there are no crops to justify them, 
can usually be induced to 'keep the peace' if he receives a leg of venison 
as hush-money. I say this with first-hand knowledge, and it is a fact 
known well enough to many of the higher officials with whom I had 
occasion to discuss the question, but who are powerless to 'put a stop 
to the practice under prevailing conditions. Sambar and cheetal are 
perhaps the worst sufferers, and in areas where they were plentiful as 
recently as 10 years ago, a marked decline in their numbers is noticeable. 

It is sad, but nevertheless true, that some of the greatest offenders 
are not the ignorant ryot and the village shikari, but directly or in- 
~ directly they are people like vakils, officials (usually, but not always, 
petty !) and well-to-do and so-called educated citizens who should 
know better. They either do the slaughtering themselves, regardless 
of Regulations and time of year, or lend out their guns to professional 
shikaris, or encourage the latter indirectly by commissioning them to 
procure game for them or by readily buying up whatever is offered 
for sale at all times of the year. 

This indirect sort of abetment is not confined to four-footed game, 
but applies largely also to game birds such as partridge and quail. 
While on survey work on the outskirts on Aurangabad town in the 
second' half of April (1932), I came upon a party of professional snarers 
complete with paraphernalia and decoy birds. Investigation showed 
that these men had been commissioned to catch bush-quails for a dinner 
being given the next day by a military 'Burra Saheb' of the British 
Cantonments ! These professional snarers — Pardis and others — are 
veritable pests, but it is only thus that they are able to carry on their 
nefarious operations year in, year out, with the result that in many areas 
feathered game has been reduced to the verge of extinction. In the 
words of a highly-placed police officer who was also a keen sportsman 
and Nature-lover and strived at all times to ensure an observance of 
the Game Regulations,' The man with the gun does not do half so 
much damage (to feathered game) as the snarer. He is like a broom, 
for he sweeps everything before him into his net.' 

Principal Reasons for Deple tion of Game 

Some of the causes contributory to the rapid and steady depletion 
of wild life in the Hyderabad State have been hinted at above. Many 
of them are the same as obtaining in other parts of India, but there are 
others which are peculiar to the Dominions and the direct outcome of 
conditions there prevailing. To tabulate them all, they are as follows: 

1. Enormous and continued increase of population in the last 
two decades as shown by the Census Reports of 1921 and 1931. 

2. Improvement, extension and opening up of new roads and 
railway lines (cf. the Kazipet-Belharsha line and others) and the intro- 
duction and penetration of motor cars and buses, which combined 

5 



HYDERABAD STATE 87 

With (1), are having the effect of throwing open large tracts of country 
that hitherto provided a refuge to wild life. 

3. The facilities provided by (2) in bringing distant game tracts 
within speedy and comfortable reach of the man with the gun. 

Places such as Utnoor which formerly took three days by bullock 
cart over tracks little better than boulder-strewn ravines are performed 
in 1932 by motor car in about as many hours ! 

4. Shooting from motor cars and buses both by day and by night 
is a growing menace. The practice has assumed alarming proportions 
since the Game Regulations were promulgated in 1914, and since it is 
apparently not contrary to law, it is freely indulged in"by all and sundry. 

5. The non-existence hitherto of the Arms Act and the easy 
availability of cheap guns of foreign and local manufacture, and of 
gunpowder and percussion caps for muzzle-loaders. 

6. Indiscriminate poaching and slaughter of game for commercial 
purposes at all times of the year. 

7. Wholesale snaring, netting and trapping of game birds such as 
partridge and quail, often at all seasons, and the taking of their eggs. 

8. Droughts and epidemics. 

9. Wild dogs. 

Remedies Suggested 

1, 2, 3. Increase of population, clearance of forest lands, exten- 
sion of cultivation and of transport facilities are the natural Con- 
comitant of progress, and it would be unreasonable to check these, 
except perhaps (1), for which suggestions are out of place here ! No 
case can be made out for protection of wild life at the expense of human 
interests. However, a strict observance of the Game Regulations in 
such areas should be enforced and punishments of a deterrent nature 
meted out to offenders uniformly, regardless of rank or social position." 

4. Shooting from cars and buses, especially by night with the aid 
of powerful headlights and electric torches, should be made unlawful. 

5. The recent introduction of the Arms Act into the State has 
not been a day too early. The restriction it will impose on the posses- 
sion of firearms and on the purchase of ammunition, gunpowder and 
percussion caps should, if properly enforced, have a beneficial effect 
on wild life in course of time. 

6 and 7. It is a fact that most of the poaching — slaughtering and 
snaring — is done for monetary gain and is encouraged directly or 
indirectly by people who have no excuse for pleading ignorance of the 
law. It is an axiom that if there were no receivers of stolen property 
there would be no thefts committed which, in the main, is unassailable. 
Therefore, if the promiscuous purchase of the meat, hides and horns 
of game animals (except perhaps of game birds in season Under a 
regulated system) was made illegal, as well as the sale of these articles, 
the chief incentive to poaching would be eliminated and a great deal 
of professional poaching would disappear. I suggest that as regards 
partridge and quail, areas should be set apart in rotation to remain 
entirely closed to snaring and trapping at all seasons, until such time as 
they become sufficiently replenished. The taking of eggs of all game 
birds should be made punishable. 

8. Droughts can be remedied to some extent by the provision of reser- 
voirs and by means of canals and channels leading from them. This has 
already been partly achieved in certain areas, cf. Pakhal and NizSmsagar 
Lajces, and others. In times of drought, such places tend to draw round 



88 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

them animals from distant parts and, wherever possible, adequate forest 
land should be set apart near such reservoirs to provide harbourage to 
wild life at ordinary times, and specially in seasons of water famine. 

Epidemics 

According to the Inspector-General of Forests, no epidemics 
among wild animals are reported, and no measures are taken to protect 
game in the forest against them. That measures are called for, how- 
ever, is patent; an instance has been giyen above of a whole herd of 
bison being exterminated by foot-and-mouth disease near Manikgarh 
and the late Mr. E.-Ogilvie, a District Superintendent of Police, informed 
me that some years ago hundreds of animals perished in the Warangal 
District in a similar epidemic. 

Large tracts of game country have been known to be cleared by 
rinderpest and foot-and-mouth disease contracted from infected cattle 
left to graze in forests inhabited by wild animals. Measures should 
be enforced that as soon as the first signs of an outbreak of these epi- 
demics are detected in village cattle, they should be prevented from 
being let loose in Government forests containing game. One epidemic 
of this sort, as is well known, will do damage from which it will be 
difficult for game to regain its position for years afterwards. Often 
the damage_is irreparable, and in many cases the serious diminution, 
or even complete extinction, of bison and buffalo in certain areas can 
be traced directly to disease contracted in this way from domestic cattle. 

9. Wild Dogs do considerable damage to game, and in spite of 
a recent suggestion that their ravages have been over-estimated, it 
cannot be denied that measures devised to reduce their numbers in 
certain other Indian States and Provinces resulted manifestly in a 
corresponding increase of such animals as sambar and cheetal which 
are their favourite prey. It may be a fact that they actually drive away 
more game than they kill, but it is none the less true that they do consi- 
derable slaughter. Moreover, the game thus driven out often suffers 
heavily in an indirect way by being forcibly exposed to other dangers 
perhaps just as great, if not greater. It may, for instance, be driven 
from its forest fastnesses to the neighbourhood of villages and cultiva- 
tion, where it stands a good chance of falling to the gun of the village 
shikari or poacher, or in the case of young animals, to his dogs. 

When I was at Asifabad, the. surrounding country was overrun 
by wild dogs, in consequence of which forests said to contain a fair 
amount of game ordinarily, were bare. I shot a wild dog which was 
later sent with the shikari to the kutcheri for claiming the prescribed 
reward. The Tahsildar was wholly unaware of any reward having 
to be paid ! Enquiries of the Inspector-General of Forests elicited that 
some years ago rewards were paid for killing wild dogs (as per Clause 
42 of the Game Regulations) but due to disuse this had become a dead 
letter and no rewards were now being paid. In my opinion, no case 
has been made out for the discontinuance of the rewards and the sooner 
they are reinstated the better. 

The existing Game Regulations, with perhaps a few alterations 
and additions, are sound enough on paper. Their application and 
enforcement is quite another matter. Mr. Hankin, a former Inspector- 
General of Police, tried his best during many years, but though a force- 
ful and able officer, it is doubtful if he was able to effect much. Neither 
have the authorities at the top relaxed their efforts since, but for all 
practical purposes the position has not improved, In my opinion 



HYDERABAD STATE 89 

the immediate way of dealing with the problem as far as the State is 
concerned, would be to form a small committee comprised of a com- 
petent non-official sportsman and naturalist, and Forest, Police and 
Revenue interests to go into the matter thoroughly and de novo, and 
to investigate the exact present position of wild life from district to 
district. Having once determined this, and with due regard to the 
varying conditions, they should be able to devise practicable measures 
for giving effect to the remedies suggested above and to any others 
that may seem to them necessary. 

There are extensive tracts of forest in the State which might be 
demarcated and set apart as Wild Life Sanctuaries on the model of the 
National Parks now in existence in most civilised countries of the West. 
Three suitable localities suggested by the Inspector-General of Forests 
for such_ reservation are: (!) along the cart track from Asifabad to 
Utnoor-Adilabad District ; (2) Amrabad-Mahbflbnagar District ; 
(3) around the newly constructed Nizamsagar Lake — Medak District. 
For the administration of these reservations and also for a proper 
administration of the Game Regulations in other State forests, the 
need of creating a separate and efficient Game Department becomes 
imperative. This should consist of a Game Warden with a staff of 
assistants, and watchers of the right type. It should either be subject 
to the Inspector-General of Forests and work in full co-operation -with 
his department, or better still be directed by a small committee consist- 
ing of the Inspector-General of Forests, the Inspector-General of Police, 
the Revenue Member and the Game -Warden (ex-officio). By a curious 
anachronism, shooting licences are at present issued by the Political 
Department. Whatever may have been the origin and desirability of 
this practice in the past, it is clear that the function should now be trans- 
ferred to the Forest Department where it rightly belongs. Later it 
could be taken over by the Game Department. The present procedure 
has little to recommend it; it results in unnecessary inconvenience and 
lack of co-ordination which does not make for efficiency. 

After a proper investigation into the problem of wild life con- 
servation in the Nizam's Dominions, as elsewhere, it emerges more 
clearly than ever that at the back of all the senseless slaughter and 
law-breaking, which has brought about the present sorry plight, is the 
apathy of public opinion towards the need for the preservation of our 
fauna. The backing of public opinion is vital to the success of a icam- 
paign of this nature. Lectures and the exhibition of suitable cinema 
films should be organised in order to rouse the public from its apathy 
and make it realise the value and importance of wild life, and appre- 
ciate the measures and the arguments put forward for its protection 
and preservation. A beginning must also be made with children in 
the schools, by means of properly arranged Nature Study programmes, 
so that they will grow up to a love of Nature and to a sense of their 
responsibility for the conservation of wild life which is their natural 
heritage. Let us hope it will not be too late before the necessary steps 
are taken by the authorities. 

I, am indebted for much interesting information concerning game 
in the Hyderabad State in the recent past to the two veteran sportsmen 
brothers Brigadier-General R. G. and Col. R. W. Burton, and to 
Nawab Hamid Yar Jung Bahadur, the State Inspector-General of 
Forests, for his ready and willing co-operation in supplying me with a 
great deal of authentic data relating to modern conditions and to the 
existing Game Regulations and their administration in the Dominions. 

8 



IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE JOURNAL OF 
THE BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 

Jour. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. 40, No. I, 1938. 

4, A. PRINCIPLES OF W1LQ LIFE CONSERVATION 

By Theodore Hubback, F.Z.S. 

Introduction 

Are the principles of Wild Life Conservation to continue as elusive 
conceptions without material form, or are they to become a living 
presence increasing in virility year by year? 

There appears to be a danger that these principles will be sacrificed 
for private profit. The present tendency to exploit all natural resources 
"regardless of the future will eventually result in the disappearance of 
many species of the larger fauna unless such tendency is drastically 
checked. 

Until it is recognized that Wild Life is a valuable natural resource 
and that the benefits derived from an unguarded resource are wasting 
benefits, waste will continue till the resource has gone and the benefits 
have vanished. 

* * * * 

No natural resource is more sensitive to conservation than wild 
life, and no natural resource has suffered more from lack of conserva- 
tion. During the last fifty years species have been exterminated due 
to this deficiency. 

Wild life is only just being recognized as one of our valuable 
assets, but this recognition is so tardy, especially in some of our 
Colonies and Dependencies, that there is a very real danger of the 
recognition coming too late. The days when efficient conservation 
may be possible are rapidly passing away. 

Unfortunately it is a fact that those principles of conservation 
which it is imperative should be applied to wild life preservation are 
seldom understood by those who have the power to further or retard 
the measures desired. The lack of proper financial provision is, 
I believe, the real reason why in some of our Colonies and parts of 
India and Burma we are losing our wild life. Those who hold the 
keys of the money bags never appear to be conservationists ! 

I shall endeavour to show in this articje how senseless it is to 
expect to save wild life unless the true principles of conservation are 
recognized and adopted. The 'hit or miss method' of a budget 
allowance for what is erroneously called 'game protection' will never 
achieve the saving of our wild life. 

To conserve wild life resources you must have a fairly accurate 
idea of what you have to conserve arid what you wish to conserve. 
In other words, you should know what your stock consists of; you 
should know where it is to be found; you should have a knowledge 
of its ecology, numbers and status. 

These alone are questions which cannot be answered except after 
careful research and skilled inquiry. 

Let us take the larger forms of wild life and consider certain 
species. Wild elephants, for instance, may have, as they have in 

1 



PRINCIPLES OF WILD LIFE CONSERVATION 91 

India and elsewhere, an economic value, apart from the value of their 
ivory, because they are used for domestic and transport purposes. 
Therefore, there is probably in such countries a desire to conserve 
elephants for economic reasons and it is not desired to see the wild 
stock, the natural resource, exterminated. A wild elephant is certainly 
out of place in a highly cultivated or industrial area, but not out of 
place in his jungle habitat, and so long as it is desired to conserve 
wild elephants for economic reasons, so long should we retain sufficient 
of their habitat to make that conservation a possibility. But principles 
of conservation cannot be based solely on such premises. I merely 
give the above illustration as an instance of one reason for consideration 
of the problem from an economic outlook. 

There is much wild life which we cannot claim as having to our 
knowledge any direct commercial value to the community, although 
its aesthetic value may be very great. 

One will readily divide the classes of commercially valuable and 
aesthetically valuable wild-life resources by' thinking of fur-bearing wild 
animals, and the many attractive song-birds which delight our hearts 
and soothe our nerves. People desire that both classes should be 
conserved, but for dissimilar reasons. Then again Wild life is conserved 
for recreation all over the world, another reason different from those 
quoted above. 

It is legitimate to presume that there being many reasons for the 
continuance of wild life in most parts of the world, proper steps for 
its conservation should be taken, and therefore one would expect to 
receive the support and approval of the Public for- any sound policy 
of conservation. 

It is useless to imagine that you can conserve wild life without 
spending money on an organization to do so. You get very little in 
this world for nothing and wild life conservation is no exception to 
the general rule of having to pay for a good article. 

An International Conference for the Protection of the Fauna and 
Flora of Africa was held in London in November, 1933, and a conven- 
tion was ultimately signed by the representatives of nine Governments. 

Besides the representatives of the Governments immediately con- 
cerned the Governments of the United States of America, India and 
the Netherlands sent observers to the Conference. 

This Convention embraced many phases of conservation and 
should prove of inestimable value to African Fauna and Flora. 

Although the recommendations are far-reaching and are vital' to 
a proper system of conservation the question of how the expenditure 
on such proposals should be met was not referred to in any of the 
documents published. , 

Possibly it was not within the province of this Conference to deal 
with or even refer to the question of financial arrangements: such 
matters are left to the Governments concerned. Nevertheless the whole 
constructive policy of conservation may break down, whatever resolu- 
tions are passed, unless financial provision is assured for that 
policy. 

It is clear, I think, that as a Nation we are anxious to preserve 
and keep from extermination the fauna in our charge. To an Inter- 
national Conference for the Protection of Nature held in Paris in July, 
1931, the Prime Minister, Mr. Ramsay MacDonald, sent a message 
of which the following is an extract: 



92 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

'In the Territories for which they are responsible His Majesty's 
Government in the United Kingdom regard themselves as trustees for 
the Protection of Nature not only in the interests of their present 
inhabitants, but in those of the world at large and of future generations. 

v 'The wonderful fauna and flora with which Nature has endowed 
the w^rld have already suffered grave losses. Animals and plants of 
great scientific interest and often of greatbeauty have been exterminated > 
objects of great geological interest have -been destroyed and the beauties 
of Nature defaced. Lovers of Nature may do much to stem this 
process, but if their object is to be secured the active co-operation of 
Government is essential.' 

The obligation of a Nation towards the wild life in its territories 
is well stated in a speech made by the present King of Belgium, when 
he was still Prince Leopold, at a dinner of the African Society held 
in London on November 18, 1933. He said: 

'The protection of nature raises problems of universal importance, 
the evolution of which cannot be left to the initiative of isolated groups, 
whose action is necessarily limited, and who are unable to enforce in 
their entirety the effective measures of preservation which are necessary. 
'The State alone can and must take the responsibility for a 
protective organization which will command the interest of all mankind 
in its moral, social, economical and cultural development : and thus 
the "political aspect of the question becomes apparent.' 

Are we, as a Nation, to allow the conservation of wild life to be 
undertaken by local Governments as a purely domestic policy ? The 
pronouncement of the Prime Minister is against this. 

Yet during the last few years, serious steps have been taken by 
local Governments to prejudice considerably the work of conservation 
by withholding funds and reducing personnel, making constructive 
"methods impossible. Financial stringency has been the excuse. 

In my opinion these unfortunate contretemps, which most seriously 
affect the status of the fauna, can be and should be avoided by a re- 
cognition of the fact that there is an intimate connection between the 
revenue derived from Wild Life Resources and the amount of money 
that can be spent on its conservation. 

This is the base on which a sound financial policy for efficient 
conservation can be built. 

Whatever laws are passed, without adequate means to enforce 
them, the work of conservation must fail; and to inaugurate success- 
fully a. real service for the conservation of wild life there must.be a 
definite financial policy to deal with it. So long as funds Can. he-cut off, 
which reduce, or even abrogate, the service for conservation, while 
the methods of destruction are left unchecked by any practical 
application, of the law, so long will our work fail. .We must appreciate 
the fact that failure means the ultimate disappearance of the wild 
fauna. 

We are not concerned at the moment with the laws: their general 
principles are, broadly speaking, agreed to, and although not consistent 
throughout our Territories and Colonies could easily be brought more 
or less into a condition of co-ordination. The great importance of 
inviolate reserves is now widely recognized, but steps to implement 
the laws for such sanctuaries are awaited. 

What we are concerned with are ways and means to enable the 
laws we have to be properly enforced. 

3 



?RlNCtt>LES OF WILD LIFE CONSERVATION 93 

A method has been adopted in many parts of the United States 
whereby a ' Game Fund ' is established by law — embodied in fact in 
the Game and Fish Laws — by which all revenue, direct and indirect, 
derived from Wild Life Resources is credited to the Fund. That 
money is kept apart from the general revenue and earmarked for the 
conservation of wild life. The most striking example of the success 
of this method can be seen in the results obtained in Pennsylvania, 
U.S.A. This State was ' shot out ' in 1890, but in that year a few of- 
the people realized that drastic steps would have to be taken if their 
wild life was to be saved. Finally a Board of Game Commissioners 
was appointed, and when the Board began its work in 1896 its funds 
consisted of the sum of G. $ 800 only. In 1913 a sum of G $ 97,000 
was available; in 1930, G. $ 1,413,251 was the amount "budgeted for 
the fiscal year, June 1, 1929, to May 31, 1930. 

Not only was a large revenue obtained, but a ' shot out ' State 
was turned into one of the best sporting States on the eastern side of 
North. America. 

Can we afford to ignore such methods which have proved so 
strikingly successful ? I think not. 

Another method is by the ' yard-stick,' whereby the amount to 
be spent on conservation of wild life is budgeted according to the 
estimated revenue for the year from Wild Life Resources. 

But whichever system is used it must be laid down by law, that 
in the case of a fund— call it ' Wild Life Fund ' if you like— that fund 
cannot be raided or interfered with by the Legislature. The Budget 
Commissioner, or whoever is the officer handling finance, cannot be 
allowed to interfere with the prqposed expenditure provided it is within 
the estimated revenue of the fund, or the limits of the measurement 
by ' yard-stick'. 

Whichever system is adopted it must be recognized that the. service 
for the protection of wild life will be expected to protect certain types 
and forms of the fauna which do not produce any direct or indirect 
revenue, but still require expenditure on their preservation for other 
reasons. 

It may therefore be necessary before a substantial fund has been 
built up, to obtain from the general revenue funds for the conserva- 
tion of insectivorous birds, and other forms of wild life which are of 
utilitarian value. Later on, as in Pennsylvania, when a solid revenue 
is assured, such requests will be unnecessary. 

The direct and indirect revenue which should be credited to the 
department for the conservation of wild life should consist of: 
Game Licences. 

Licences and Permits for Sporting Arms. 
Import and Export Licences for Sporting Arms. 
Duties on Sporting Arms. 
Duties on Sporting Cartridges. 

Licences for Purchase of Sporting Arms and Sporting Cartridges. 
Licences to Sell or Store Sporting Arms and Sporting Cartridges. 
■ Fishing Licences. 
Fines and Costs. 

Sales of Confiscated Articles and Picked-up Trophies. 
The expenditure should include: 
Salaries, Allowances and Transport of Officials. 
Construction work on and maintenance of National Parks, 



94 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN lNttlA 

Sanctuaries and Reserves. 

Building and Maintenance of Offices. 

Predatory Animal Control. 

Fencing. 

Rewards. 

Court Expenses. 

Sinking Fund for Leave, Gratuities and Pensions. 

The Officer-in-charge of the Conservation Department, with the 
Opportunities that a stable financial policy would give him, could 
surely organize a service which would not only benefit the wild life 
of his country but would be of inestimable ■ value to the country itself. 

What we are now doing for conservation of wild life in many 
places is just so much waste of time, because we have never got past 
the stage of treating the work as a casual matter which can be under- 
taken by any one. 

It is useless trying to build up a staff knowing that just as the work 
of conservation is beginning to make its mark it is liable to be dispensed 
with at the behest of some ephemeral office-holder. 

The whole matter turns on proper measures being taken to finance 
the work required. If the system of the ' Wild Life Fund ' is adopted, 
and the organization necessary and possible with the funds obtainable 
placed in the hands of experienced conservationists, success is assured. 

Adequate funds at the disposal of an efficient organization — you 
cannot have such an organization without adequate funds — would 
enable the proper guarding of wild life resources, the proper policing 
of sanctuaries and reserves, the building up of a loyal service for these 
objects, all of which are quite impossible so long as the position - of the 
staff and the execution of the work has no foundation for lack of a 
financial policy. 

In actual practice the work of successfully conserving wild life 
is one of considerable difficulty and is highly specialized work. Few 
have the aptitude to become practical conservationists, and still fewer 
have the knowledge or experience to enable them to exercise that 
aptitude if they possess it. 

But the real menace to any sound 'policy of wild life conservation 
lies in that ugly word 'indifference'. This is generally synonymous 
with ' ignorance '. The latter is easier to overcome. There is often 
a feeling, in a new country especially, that exploitation can be better 
carried on by not paying too much notice to the claims and rights 
of the indigenous fauna. In the United States of America there has 
frequently been an outcry against the creation or extension of a National 
Park by certain of the get- rich-quick fraternity. These people are 
sometimes described by the elusive expression ' vested interests ' . This 
class of opposition to the conservation of natural resources will be found 
in many places, generally coming from local inhabitants who are look- 
ing for immediate profit and immediate ' development '. Sometimes 
this indifference to conservation is shown by Governments — no doubt 
for the same reason. 

The opposition to a National Park Project may come from the 
fact that the conservation would then be real and effective. That, 
I think, .is the truth. 

By leaving the financial arrangements for the service of conserva- 
tion to local Legislatures we are taking a great risk of losing our fauna 
altogether. Some Legislatures might not object to a denouement! 

5 



PRINCIPLES OF WILD LIFE CONSERVATION 95 

India, Burma and Malaya have adopted a policy by which many 
firearms are now in the possession of those whose observance of the 
laws for the preservation of wild life is only governed by the chances 
of detection if such laws are disregarded ; and although during the 
last few years the issue of weapons for the destruction of wild life has 
been great, funds or personnel to ensure the observance of the laws 
for preservation have not been increased, in some cases they have even 
been curtailed. 

Usually the argument used to justify the supply of arms to the 
ryot is to enable him to defend his crops; in most cases his crops can 
be much more efficiently protected by a stout stake and rail fence. In 
the case of large wild animals, such as elephant, the frequent wound- 
ing by firing at them with any sort of missile, even bird shot, merely 
aggravates the trouble. Guns issued for crop protection are used for 
poaching, and such poaching can only be kept in check by the enforce- 
ment of an energetic policy through an adequate organization. 

In the Dominions, especially Canada, the value of the conserva- 
tion of wild life is well recognized and the work well organized. It 
is in countries such as India, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya, British Borneo 
and parts of Africa that so much yet requires to be done. 

The principles of conservation have not been fully and generally 
applied in these countries. 

In India there are no appointments of Game Wardens as such, 
conservation work being entrusted, as a side-show to the Forest 
Department. Burma had a Forest Officer appointed as a wholetime 
Game Warden, but directly there was financial stringency, the billet 
was discontinued, and is still discontinued. A Forest Officer with a 
full-time job was appointed as an Honorary Game Warden: he sub- 
sequently resigned. Another Forest Officer has now been appointed 
Game Warden. ~~ 

At the recent Conference on 'Indian Fauna it was resolved that 
the Provincial Governments should be asked to appoint Game Wardens. 
Also that licence fees, etc., accruing from wild life resources should 
be spent on conservation. 

Even these principles had not been recognized, or at least, not 
publicly advocated, in India as vital to the conservation of wild life. 

Dr. R. L. Spittel, President of the Ceylon Game and Fauna 
Protection Society, speaking in London at a meeting of the Society 
for the Preservation of the Fauna of the Empire on October 8, 1934, 
did not hesitate to emphasize the parlous condition of the wild life 
in that Island. Here are some extracts from his Address: 

'Those- who know our jungles have long realized that unless 
protective measures are instituted, the wild life of so small an 'island 
as ours would soon be doomed. 

The story of the Ceylon Game Protection Society, since its 
birth some thirty-eight years ago, is that of a long-sustained struggle 
to interest Government in the protection of the larger fauna, which, 
but for its efforts, would hardly be worth speaking of, to-day. 

Owing to the interest taken by Sir Henry McCallum, the then 
Governor, the Dried Meat Ordinance was passed in 1908 and the Game 
Protection Ordinance in 1909 when the Yala and Wilpattu Sanctuaries 
were established; the first real step in protection was then taken. 

But since that time things were allowed to drift, and the situa- 
tion was becoming very alarming. 



96 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

Game is now scarce even in our remotest jungles, largely 
because thirsty animals are killed in months of drought (June-August) 
at water-holes, and their dried flesh bartered. Up to some years ago 
shooting had to be .done by moonlight. The slaughter then was not 
anything like as terrible as it became with the introduction of the elec- 
tric, torch, by the aid of which animals could be killed nightly throughout 
the year. 

But worse than that, parties began to ply the jungle roads at 
night in cars equipped with powerful spot-lights, carrying a battery of 
guns and hand-torches. They blazed away at the gleaming eyes of 
"timid hunted hares", deer, leopard, or anything they met. One 
such car to my knowledge was responsible for six deer and a dozen 
hare in a single night and another for twenty-eight hare in a few hours. 
One man, accustomed to driving out occasionally for an hour or two 
at night, accounted in about six years for no less than thirty-five 
leopards. 

When animals thus worried became shy of the roads, the "spot- 
light sportsman" carried his torch along jungle paths, giving the 
creatures no quarter in their seclusion. 

Then breech-loaders became cheap and began to replace the 
muzzle-loaders of villagers, who also acquired torches, and the animals 
were harassed out of existence. Their carcasses always commanded a 
ready sale to passing 'buses. 

You will inquire, "Were there no games laws to put a stop to 
this ?" There were, but they were not enforced. A policy of laissez- 
faire made even people who shduld have known better forget the 
existence of these laws. There was no prohibition against the shooting 
of any but game animals by night, even with spot-lights from cars. And 
men going out on the pretence of shooting leopard and pig did not 
scruple to kill any sambar and deer they met. Sport had degenerated 
into night-shooting with lights or driving jungles with gangs, legiti- 
mate stalking being practised by few. 

-We, like other countries, realize to the full that this is the age 
of the destruction of the world fauna, and that many species will be 
exterminated unless provision is made for their protection. 

The spectacle of wild animals in their natural surroundings is 
one of the greatest joys of man. The true sportsman gradually becomes 
the champion of wild creatures, and it is chiefly owing to his initiative 
and understanding that sanctuaries have been established. -Nowhere, 
perhaps,- has this been better exemplified than in Ceylon. The religion 
of the land is mainly Buddhism— perhaps the only religion in the world 
that extends its benevolence to animals — yet the outcry for protection 
has come not from the Buddhist, but from the men who shoot.' 

A sorry picture of the. failure of a Colonial administration to enforce 
its own laws. 

Malaya has been, due to unstable and vacillating administrative 
methods, in a state of disturbance and uncertainty regarding what 
should be done for wild life, and is still in that state, despite the fact 
that a full constructive programme in the Report of a Commission 
appointed to inquire into the whole matter was submitted to the Malayan 
Governments so long ago as 1932. 

In Africa recent reports made at the instance of the Fauna Society 
showed that in West Africa at least no satisfactory methods of wild 
life conservation exist. 



PRINCIPLES OF WILD LIFE CONSERVATION 97 

The destruction of elephants in Uganda goes along merrily, and 
the following figures taken from the Game Warden's Reports are 
instructive: 



1930 . 


892 




1931 . 


. 1,211 


These elephants were officially 


1932 •. . 


. 1,210 


destroyed. 


1933 . 


. 1,380 




1934 . 


. 1,603 





In the Annual Report of the Uganda Game Department for 1934, 
the following words appear (para. 34): 

'This gives an aggregate wastage of 13,096 elephants, which 
is the minimum for the period (ten years), and with the addition of 
tuskless juveniles which are not shown on the returns, and a percentage 
of elephants which perish in swamps and are never found, the grand 
total can be taken to be approximately 14,000, truly a stupendous 
figure.' 

Stupendous indeed ! 

The stock of elephants must be enormous to stand this destruc- 
tion, because in addition to the above figures, many hundreds of elephants 
must have been killed or died in other ways. But perhaps this is merely 
the backdoor to 'birth control', because such disturbance as must result 
from the harassing, inseparable from so much killing, must react to 
hinder normal breeding. There is some fatal period reached in the life- 
history of wild animals when the continuing abnormality of a disturbed 
existence' appears to break their spirit and they are. then liable to cease 
to produce their species. This psychological phenomenon is not 
properly understood, but is recognized as existing by persons who have 
studied wild life at close quarters. 

These are only meagre outlines, space forbids an extensive review, 
but they indicate that we have a long way to go before the principles of 
conservation are applied as they should be applied in some of our 
Possessions. 

In America it is now fully recognized that organizations for wild 
life conservation are necessary and that proper financial support should 
be forthcoming based on the revenue which accrues from wild life 
resources. 

Wide latitude in dealing with the funds at their disposal is given 
to the officers who carry out the conservation programme. 

To illustrate this policy I wish to quote from a statement made 
by Mr. Slautterback, the Executive Secretary of the Pennsylvania 
Game Commission, at the Annual Meeting of the American Game 
Association, held in New York, in December 1929. Mr. Slautter- 
back having addressed the meeting on the subject 'Budgeting Game 
Funds,' was asked certain questions and gave certain answers. Here 
they are: 

Mr. Adams : As I understand it, you have a separate game fund 
in Pennsylvania to. which all the revenues from licences go auto- 
matically, but in making any expenditure against that fund must you 
receive legislative sanction ? 

Mr. Slautterback: No. 

Mr. Adams : Must you get sanction from any budget commission 
or any one outside of the Game Department ? 

Mr. Slautterback: We prepare our budget, holding it within 
our expected revenue. This is presented to the officer and he naturally 
7 8 



98 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

approves the budget if our several items are within the estimated revenue. 
I am referring to the State budget officer. 

Mr. Adams: In the last analysis have they the authority if 
they wish to use it of making any changes in your set-up, or simply 
inspect it to be sure that it stays inside of your anticipated revenue ? 

Mr. Slautterback : Your explanation is correct — to inspect it 
to see that it remains within our revenue but to be used for no other 
purpose except for game protection and propagation purposes. 

Chairman. Quinn : Your Budget Commissioner has no authority 
to disapprove the budget if it is within your income ? 

Mr. Slautterback: He has not. 

Judge Miles : 1 would like to ask if it is necessary that the funds 
accumulated to this department have to be appropriated by the 
Legislature before it is available ? 

Mr. Slautterback: They are not appropriated by the Legis- 
lature. 

The Game Commissioner is made responsible and is held res- 
ponsible for the work and is given the power and means with which 
to do it. 

As the exact opposite of this, I should like to mention a case in 
Malaya where a Game Warden's monthly bills were held up and sent 
back to him, although they were certified by the guarantee of the Game 
Warden's signature, because one bill, a recovery for a small petty-cash 
payment to an illiterate native, was witnessed by one person only and 
not by two as required by a general order ! 

Such red-tape entanglements can scarcely come within the category 
of the 'principles of conservation '. 

After all, what are the principles of conservation which we can 
apply to wild life ? 

I think we may claim that the chief object of conservation of wild 
life must be to prevent the disappearance of species. We cannot say 
we don't want such-and-such a species because it eats our fowls or dis- 
turbs our garden ; its benefits to the universe in other ways may be 
more important than our pet fowls or our local garden. 

We can say we don't want such species in our backyard and we 
can take steps to protect our property, but we" are wrong if we say 
such-and-such species should be exterminated. Our knowledge is 
much too incomplete to allow us to say anything of the sort. 

Most people would have answered in the affirmative a question 
regarding the desirability of the extermination of the shark, and yet 
the first discovery of insulin, a drug which has brought relief to 
thousands of diabetics, was made in the liver (pancreas ?) of a shark 
(see Journal of Mammalogy, No. 2, Vol. 6, p. 87, 1925). 

Therefore, I think the practical application of steps to prevent 
extermination of species must be the foundation on which to build 
our framework of conservation. 

This can be done in many ways, but the most certain, most 
equitable and most spectacular method of achieving this is by setting 
aside certain areas of suitable land as permanent sanctuaries for the 
fauna. 

Conservation must be recognized as a specialized subject and the 
execution of the duties necessary to conserve any natural resource 
should be entrusted to, and undertaken by, persons whose training and 
practical experience enable them to know what is required to make 

9 



PRINCIPLES OF WILD LIFE CONSERVATION 99 

such conservation a success. This sounds like a platitudinous argument 
which is redundant in its obviousness ; and so it is, but unfortunately 
the intelligent minds in this world are in the minority, and it often 
happens that conservation work is looked upon by the unenlightened 
mind belonging to someone who is in a position to place conservation 
on a low plane of activity, as work which can be looked after by any one 
as a spare-time job. No greater mistake could be made. Until it is 
recognized as essential to make full-time appointments for those in 
charge of the work of preservation and protection, so long will the 
work fail ; as it has failed everywhere in countries where preservation 
of the fauna is professed but the application of the principles of con- 
servation refused. Certainly we must recognize as one of the practical 
applications the entrusting of the work to persons with full responsibility 
to carry out the duties necessary. 

We must guard against a present tendency to treat a Game 
Warden as a conservationist only as a last resort 

But, if a Game Warden is to achieve the objects of conservation 
he must only take extreme measures when really necessary. It is 
unfortunately the truth that much unnecessary killing, wounding and 
suffering is inflicted under the guise of crop protection. Have a proper 
financial policy with a Wild Life Fund; allow the Game Warden full 
powers to spend it; then these matters would be dealt with by those 
who would know what to do and relief could be, and no doubt would 
be, given to cultivators by fencing and other methods. The dangerous 
policy of 'control' if not properly controlled is a real menace to the 
future of many species. 

An important principle of conservation is the utilization of natural 
resources for the benefit of mankind. We cannot improve on Theodore 
Roosevelt's definition of conservation as 'preservation through wise 
use'. Only such use may be made of wild life species which we 
desire to conserve as will ensure that the stock is not dangerously 
depleted. 

A wise policy of wild life conservation will provide for: 

(1) Adequate laws for protection. 

(2) Adequate areas as permanent sanctuaries or refuges for 
species in their known habitat. 

(3) Adequate organizations to enforce the former and administer 
the latter. 

If these three principles are insisted on, then we may have some 
hope for the future of the fauna of our" Empire, but unless steps are 
taken, and taken soon, to recognize the critical state of the wild life 
in -many of our Colonies and Dependencies, and to check the present 
rate of destruction, the future can be contemplated only with, appre- 
hension. To those who know how inefficient and inadequate in many 
places our methods of wild life conservation are, the wild life in such 
places appears doomed to extinction. 

You can replace trees; you can sustain domestic animals by 
private breeding ; but wild life must have an environment of its own 
in which to thrive and increase in a natural and normal fashion. 

The price to pay for the neglect of the observation of conservation 
principles as applied to wild life is a terrible one — no less than the 
disappearance for ever of species after species. 

' Qui nunc it per iter tenebricosum illuc unde negant redire 
quemquam.' 

10 



Jour. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. 47, No. 4, 1948. 

4. B. WILD LIFE PRESERVATION IN INDIA— INDIA'S 
VANISHING ASSET 

By Lieut. -Col. R. W. Burton 

This contribution to the Journal of the Society was in course of 
preparation when there appeared in the Madras Mail newspaper of 6th 
January 1948, an article by Mr. D. Dorai Rajan under the caption, 'Pre- 
serve India's Wild Life— an appeal for Government Action.' 

It is well that the first ventilation of this urgently important subject 
in the public press since the 15th August 1947 should have been put 
forward by a national of the new India. 

Mr. Rajan's plea deals with South India only, so a similar plea 
with regard to both the dominions into which this sub-continent has 
been recently divided is now placed before the members of the Bombay 
Natural History Society — which has been for many years in actual 
fact an All-India Society — and the readers of the Journal, and through 
them to the public at large, the Governments of India and of Pakistan; 
all the Provincial Governments and rulers of States, and all owners 
of land. 

The Bombay Natural History Society 

For many years the Society, through the medium of its Journal 
and other attractive publications, has endeavoured to create and 
stimulate in India an interest in the wild life of the country. During 
the past sixty years there have appeared in the Journal upwards of 
fifty longer and shorter articles and editorials on the subject. It was 
to a great extent owing to the Society that Act XX of 1887, 'An Act 
for the preservation of Wild Birds and Game' (passed after nearly 30 
years' agitation in the matter), was replaced by 'The Wild Birds and 
Animals Protection Act (VIII of 1912) which, together with the Indian 
Forest Act (XIV of 1927) is the basis of all rules in force at the present 
time. 

Principles 

In all civilized countries there is a general recognition of the need 
for concerned and practical measures to stop the forces of destruction 
which threaten wild life in all parts of the world. The principle is 
the same everywhere, the methods to be employed must vary in every 
country, and will also vary in different parts of the same country. 
That has special application to India as a whole, and is the reason why 
legislation on wild life in this country has been complex and difficult. 
'Until it is recognized that Wild Life is a valuable natural resource, 
and the benefits derived from an unguarded resource are wasting benefits, 
waste will continue until the resource has gone and the benefits have 
vanished. No natural resource is more sensitive to conservation than 
Wild Life, and no natural resource has suffered more from lack of 
conservation. During the last sixty years species have been extermi- 
nated due to this deficiency' (Hubback). 

At the present time the pace and extent of the waste is alarming. 
In this country there is the gravest need for concerted action. 

1 (602) 



WILD LIFE PRESERVATION IN INDIA— INDIA'S VANISHING ASSET 101 

'In its fauna and flora nature has endowed India with a magni- 
ficent asset. A further interest attaches to our wild life from its asso- 
ciation with the folk-lore and bg^ndary beliefs of th; country. It is 
an interest not confined to India alone, but which has spread among 
men of culture everywhere because of the esteem and admiration 
in which her sacred books and writings are held' (Prater). 

Birds 

Although birds are not now persecuted to the same extent as ani- 
mals, yet an enormous amount of unnecessary and preventible damage 
is going on. One bright spot in India, as Champion has remarked, 
is that non-game birds are not harried to the sam; extent as used to 
be the case in some western countries, for the Indian boy does not 
amuse himself by uselessly collecting vast numbers of birds' eggs. But 
India had the dreadful plumage trade, which was far worse. 

The Great Indian Bustard is becoming increasingly scarce and has 
gone from areas where it was common not many years ago. The 
Monal Pheasant and the Tragopan of the Himalayas have been saved 
only through prohibition of export of plumage. Other birds saved 
from "what would have practically becom; extermination through the 
extremely lucrative plumage trade were peacocks and black partridges, 
egrets, jungle-cocks, paddy-birds, kingfishers, jays and rollers, orioles 
and a host of others. The governments controlling Pondicherry, Goa 
and other ports on the coasts of India co-operated, so the traffic was 
stopped. But there were many subsequent cases of smuggling, and 
these will certainly recur if the plumage trade measures are ever 
relaxed. 

All interested in bird life should take warning through perusal of 
Mr. Dodsworth's illuminating article (17). 

Now that Burma is separated from India it behoves the govern- 
ments through their Customs Departments to be increasingly vigilant, 
not only at all the ports but through the post offices and along the land 
frontiers also. 

Nomadic Tribes 

In all tracts where the snaring and netting of ground game is the 
heriditary occupation of various nomadic tribes partridges, quail, 
florican, hares are fast disappearing. These people, expert in their 
calling for untold generations, sweep the country as a broom sweeps 
the floor; nothing is passed over, nothing is spared. 

The time has long past when snarers of indigenous game birds 
should be allowed to continue to earn a livelihood in that iway; in 
any case all markets should be denied them, and public opinion should 
recognize that flesh of such wild creatures is not in these days at all 
necessary for human existence and should ban the killing of them for 
food alone. Properly regulated sport may be allowed during the seasons 
prescribed by local governments in respect of each species. 

Within a considerable distance also of Calcutta, Bombay, Madras 
and other large places markets are supplied in season and out of season 
through other agencies and local 'shikaris' in spite of the local govern- 
ment close season rules under Act VIII of 1912. 

Even if legislation on lines suggested in this article is effected, 
however much it can and may help in the endeavour to protect wild 
life, anything like practical success is possible only if there is a strong 

I (003) 



102 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

Public Opinion co-operating with the Governments. That cannot be too 
often reiterated. 
Value of Birds 

Tn connexion with all that is written above the thought-provoking 
article, ' Bird Protection in India: Why it is necessary and How it should 
be controlled,' by Salim A. Ali, M.B.O.U., contributed in 1933 to the 
U.P. Association should be read by all governing bodies. Indeed it 
is most essential to national India that bird life should be adequately 
conserved. For 'Quite apart from a sentimental value, birds render 
incalculable service to man. Without their protection our crops, our 
orchards, our food supply would be devoured by hordes of ravaging 
insects. Birds are the principal agency that controls the bewildering 
multiplication of insect life which, if unchecked, would overwhelm all 
life on this planet' (Prater). 

Species in Danger 

Mammals 

The Great One-horned Rhinoceros has only been saved by special 
measures and these, if in any way relaxed, will inevitably lead to its 
extinction. A close relative to the above, the Lesser One-horned 
Rhinoceros {sondaicus), which has been within the memory of many 
an inhabitant of the Sunderbans jungles and other tracts, has com- 
pletely disappeared — none now exist on the soil of India. The Asiatic 
Two-horned Rhinoceros which occurred in parts of Assam has gone 
from there for ever, and both these species are approaching the vanish- 
ing point in Burma and other countries where they were formerly in 
fair number. In Burma the Thamin Deer is probably doomed to 
extinction. 

, In Western Pakistan and neighbouring mountains the Straight- 
horned Markhor is rapidly disappearing; and if the Punjab Urial is 
not carefully preserved that species will not long survive. 

The Indian Antelope (Blackbuck) is becoming increasingly scarce 
and will eventually only be preserved through protection; to a less 
extent the same can be said of the Indian Gazelle. The Cheetah or 
Hunting Leopard, was not uncommon in the central parts of the Penin- 
sula but is now practically extinct in a wild state. The Wild Buffalo 
has almost gone from the areas east of the Godavari River where it was 
common not long ago; and it needs continued protection in Assam. 
The Asiatic Lion in India has only survived in its last stronghold through 
protection in the Gir Forest of the Junagadh State in Kathiawar. 

' In many districts the larger animals have been totally wiped out. 
In others, where they were once common, they are now hopelessly 
depleted. There are a few parts of India where the position of wild 
life is to some extent satisfactory, though insecure. Equally there are 
extensive areas where conditions are so appalling that, if left unchecked, 
they must lead to the complete destruction of all the larger wild creatures 
which live in them' (Prater). 

Year in year out there is terrible destruction throughout the 
enormous tract of mostly hilly and forested country comprising the 
Eastern States, from the Godavari River as far as Bengal, some of which 
are being now merged into India. The methods of the aboriginal 
tribes inhabiting this huge area (and other parts of India also) are those 
of extinction, for they net, snare, shoot all edible living creatures at all 
possible seasons and particularly during the hot weather months when 

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WILD LIFE PRESERVATION IN INDIA— INDIA'S VANISHING ASSET 103 

water at the few pools is a necessity to all and renders them an 
easy prey. 

In the Himalayan mountains also where control is difficult wild 
animals are definitely decreasing, and only to be found in any number 
in the more inaccessible places. 

Time for Decision 

The Governments have to decide without delay if wild life is to 
be effectually preserved or the present lamentable state of affairs 
allowed to continue. In the latter event there can be but one result — 
the total and irreplaceable extinction of some forms of wild life, with 
everywhere woeful reduction in number of all wild animals and many 
species of birds. 

There is no middle course. Half measures will be futile and 
waste of time. Wild life is a national and natural asset which, if it 
is ever lost, can never be replaced. It is necessary that governments 
should give a lead, a strong and unambiguous lead. 

India and Pakistan should be proud to stand side by side with 
other civilized countries of the world in saving their fauna from extinc- 
tion. 

In these days public opinion should recognize that flesh of wild 
animals is not necessary to human existence; but public opinion may 
not eventuate for many a long day. Meat-eaters want something for 
nothing and care not how they get it. Posterity means nothing to them. 

One instance. In November 1947 six shot carcasses of chital 
hinds were found with a man in a country bazaar in a British District. 
Police said prosecution doubtful because no evidence as to where the 
animals were killed. But a so-called 'Sanctuary' was not far distant. 
Burden of proof should be on the possessor. In any case Rules under 
Act VIII of 1912 must have been contravened and conviction could 
have been had. 

Legislation, and that very speedily, should absolutely prohibit 
offering for sale, possession for sale, or marketing in any way the hides, 
horns, flesh or any other part of any indigenous wild animal through- 
out the year. And, as was done by Notification in 1902 to suppress 
the plumage trade, so also should the trade in products of wild animals 
be stopped by prohibition of export by sea, and by land now that Burma 
is independent of India. 

It Would appear that there is no possible objection on religious 
or other grounds to a general law throughout the whole country to 
the above effect. Profits are large and really deterrent sentences would 
be necessary. 
Public Opinion 

At the present time public opinion as to wild life preservation is 
almost non-existent in this country. It is only through public opinion 
that wild life can be saved and preserved through all the future years. 

Hear a great statesman of former days in another land: — 

'In proportion as the structure of a Government gives force to 
public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened' 
(George Washington). 

In these days that is done through the many avenues of propaganda. 
Propaganda 

Political parties in this country have been able to rapidly rouse 
and educate public opinion in all kinds of political matters, Is it not 

4 (Q05) 



104 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

therefore possible that through like efforts the thoughts of the people 
can be directed towards the necessity of the conservation of this national 
asset of wild life? It can be done. Great are the powers of 
propaganda. 

Let the secular and religious leaders of the people lend their great 
influence and abundant powers of persuasion to furtherance of this 
most pressing need. Where there are religious influences at work 
wild life is sacrosanct. All of us know that. We see it everywhere: 
peafowl, parrots, pigeons, monkeys, nilgai and other species — fish in 
sjcred river pools. Even where some of these creatures cause much 
loss and damage to growing crops and to gathered grain they are pro- 
tected through religion. 

Where the rulers of States have made their wishes known and 
enforced, wonderful are the results. Instances are known to those 
having this subject at heart; a number are known to the writer. 

Enemies to Wild Life Preservation: 
Forgetf ulness — Indifference — Ignorance — Greed for Gain 

Laws are enacted, rules are made and forgotten, for there is no 
continuity of official enforcement and no public opinion to keep them 
in mind. 
India 

Within not many years Act VIII of 1912 was forgotten, the wide 
scope of its provisions unknown. The rules under the Act were ignored 
and its provisions a dead letter. 

1933. 'The Governor in Council has reason to believe that there 
has been little improvement in the administration of 
this Act and that subordinate officials are, not infrequently, 
offenders against its provisions, X X X X it is believed, 
that sheer ignorance of close seasons is in many cases 
the cause of offences against the Act ' . . . . 
Ceylon 

Notwithstanding a much interested and powerful Game and 
Fauna Protection Society, the many difficulties of which are related 
in Vol. 35, pp. 666 et seq, it has not been possible to effectually preserve 
wild life. The Annual Report for the 54th Season states: — 'Poaching 
in undoubtedly on the increase, and in some areas wholesale destruc- 
tion goes on.* And that is after 54 years of endeavour to save the fauna 
of the island for posterity ! 

How could it be otherwise ? In 1907 the reply of the Ceylon 
Government to urgent representations of the Society for effective 
action elicited the reply, 'Our Game Laws are quite efficient, but we 
regret we have not the power to enforce them'. It would seem that 
the same answer would have to be given to-day. 

Up to now the position in India has bean similar to that. 'The 
laws and rules are well framed but are not sufficiently enforced' (Editors). 
It cannot be too often asserted, 'Existing iaws and rules are excellent 
in themselves but it is in the efficient application of them the trouble 
arises' (Editors). 
Guns and Greed 

Apart from genuine sportsmen, it is the possessors of guns and 
rifles who do the greatest amount of harm. In many cases it is not 
the actual licencee who does the damage, but the illegal habit of 

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WILD LIFE PRESERVATION IN INDIA— INDIA'S VANISHING ASSET 105 

lending or hiring out the weapon to others. Could the abuse of 
licence granted as a personal privilege be stopped much good would 
result. But how is this to be done ? Only through public opinion could 
it be effectually curtailed. So what ? Suggestions as to Arms Act, 
if carried out, would do some good. 

It is as a poacher that man is the great destroyer; and the main 
incentive is profit by selling hides, horns : meat — to a less degree, is 
it meat only. In some places local dealers finance the village shikari, 
providing him with guns and ammunition in exchange for hides, etc. 
Sambar and chital hides and heads are openly bought and sold in many 
bazaars and there is .nothing to prevent it. Sale of trophies is common 
in many large towns and cities. To deprive sellers of their markets 
by effectively enforced legislation and through public opinion is the 
only way to remove temptation to kill for profit. If there were no 
buyers there could be no sellers. Utopia ! 

Crop Protection 

It has always been pointed out, and is notorious, that crop protec- 
tion and other weapons are used for the slaughter of game animals 
in adjacent and further forests regardless of all laws, rules, age, sex, 
season, or any other consideration whatever than profit. All this and 
other poaching is mostly carried on in Government Forests, for there 
are to be found more animals than outside them. 

So far as crop protection goes the argument in the mind of the 
cultivator is that if there are no animals the crop's will not be eaten, 
so he may as well hasten the coming of the welcome day and mean- 
while make money for himself and provide meat to the community. 
Guns s 

The great increase over former years in the number of licensed 
guns is producing its inevitable adverse effect; and there is the mass 
of unlicensed weapons carefully concealed and constantly used. 
While the reduction in the number of weapons is admittedly a difficult 
matter — the withdrawal of crop protection guns during the seasons 
when the crops are off the ground and the guns not needed for legitimate 
use is a reasonable proposition. That would be of much benefit as 
those are the months in which they do. the most harm. 

A suggestion from Assam was that crop protection guns now 
owned by villagers (more especially those inside Government Forests) 
might be acquired by Government for temporary issue at the right 
time and withdrawal when no crops, or for other reason. 

It is not likely, however, that Provincial Governments would adopt 
these gun withdrawal suggestions on account of practical difficulties 
and extra work to District Magistrates and other officials. 

A proposal advocated by many is that crop-protection weapons 
should be licensed for cut-short barrels only. Cogent arguments 
against such modified weapons are that they are more liable to be 
loaded with buckshot, so causing many animals to be wounded and 
lost; are dangerous in hands of such persons as ordinary cultivators; 
and such restriction would cause an increase of concealed weapons 
for poaching. 

It has been demonstrated in South India by Colonel R. C. Morris 
that bamboo-tube rocket-firing 'guns' are both cheap and effective 
for scaring crop-raiding wild-elephants, so firearms need -not be used 
against them by cultivators. 

6 (607) 



106 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

Such 'guns' could also be effectually used in many forest areas 
against other crop-raiding animals and so enable a large reduction in 
the number of guns now licensed for ostensible crop protection. 

The Arms Act 

Some Suggestions 

Firearms licences are issued for: — 

(1) Sport. — These should be breech-loaders, and in case of 
rifles may be magazine weapons. Automatic weapons and muzzle- 
loaders should not be licensed for sport. The former lead to indiscri- 
minate firing, the latter to cruelty through use of buckshot, bits of iron, 
old nails, etc. 

(2) Crop and cattle protection. — These should be smoothbore guns 
only; and being by law available at holder's residence only, due care 
on part of licensing officer can limit use of the weapon to within village 
boundaries only. These are surveyed and marked in forest maps so 
above entry would have effect of a conviction where otherwise a loop- 
hole might exist. Perusal of an annotated edition of Arms Act and 
Rules is illuminating as to number of avenues for escape of the wrong- 
doer under all categories. 

(3) Personal protection. — The only weapons allowed, unless the 
licence is for sport also,- should be revolver or pistol. A rifle or shotgun 
is easily robbed and just as easily turned against the possessor. 

(4) Display. — This meaning 'show with ostentation' such 
weapons only as are non-lethal should be licensed for this purpose. 

In all cases licence should be plainly crossed with words 'Sport 
only' or 'Personal protection only', etc., as the case may be. 

Licences for possession of smoothbore guns are ordinarily issued 
on application and without previous enquiry. Other licences are issued 
to persons of approved character and status, this latter being as may 
be prescribed by the Local Government. 

Were the foregoing suggestions adopted there would be no real 
hardship to any one, and wild life might greatly benefit. 

Agriculture and Wild Life 

For purposes of wild life conservation lands may be classified in 
five main categories: — Urban — Agricultural — Waste— Private — Forest. 
Urban Lands 

In these, measures should be taken for the protection of all birds. 
Areas actually under the control of municipalities or local boards 
could with advantage be constituted bird sanctuaries where the killing 
of, or taking the eggs of, any wild bird should be forbidden. The 
necessary machinery is at hand in Act VIII of 1912, relevant scetions 
of which are here given for use with this and other parts of this contri- 
• bution. 

Whereas it is expedient .... 

1. (1) This Act may be called the Wild Birds and Animals Protec- 

tion Act ,1912 ; and 
(2) It extends to the whole of British India, including British 
Baluchistan, the-Sonthal Parganas and the Pargana of Spiti. 

2. (1) This Act applies, in the first instance, to the birds and 

animals specified in the Schedule when in their wild state. 

(2) The Local Government may, by notification in the local 

official Gazette, apply the provisions of this Act to any 

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WILD LIFE PRESERVATION IN INDIA— INDIA'S VANISHING ASSET 107 

kind of wild bird or animal other than those specified in 
the Schedule which, in its opinion, it is desirable to protect 
or preserve. 

3. The Local Government may, by a notification in the local 
official Gazette, declare the whole or any part thereof to be, a close 
time throughout the whole and any part of its territories for any 
kind of wild bird or animal to which this Act applies, or for female or 
immature wild birds or animals of such kind ; and subject to the 
provisions hereinafter contained, during such close time, and^ within 
the areas specified in such notification, it shall be unlawful — 

(a) to capture any such bird or animal, or to kill any such bird 

or animal which has not been captured before the Com- 
mencement of such close time; 

(b) to sell or buy, or offer to sell or buy, or to possess any such 

bird Or animal which has been captured or killed during 
such close time, or the flesh thereof; 

(c) if any plumage has been taken from such bird captured or 

killed during such close time, to sell or buy or to offer to 
sell 'or buy, or to possess such plumage. 

4, 5, 6, 7. Penal and other provisions. 

8. Nothing in this Act shall be deemed to apply to the capture 
or killing of a wild animal by any person in defence of himself or any 
other person, or to the capture or killing of any wild bird or animal in 
bona fide defence of property. 

9. Repeals Act XX of 1887. 
The Schedule 

(1) Bustards, ducks, floricans, jungle fowl, partridges, peafowl, . 

pheasants, pigeons, quail, sand grouse, painted snipe, spur- 
fowl, woodcock, herons, egrets, rollers and kingfishers. 

(2) Antelopes, asses, bison, buffaloes, deer, gazelles, goats, 

hares, oxen, rhinoceros and sheep. 

In 1915 (Vol. 24, p. 382) it was pointed out that the practice of 
taking the eggs of sitting pheasants " and partridges is becoming in- 
creasingly common and to this malpractice the Act provides no safeguard. 
That suggestion has not been followed. To the above may now be 
added that it is a common practice to rob for food the eggs of indigenous 
wildfowl — the Spot-bill Duck and the Cotton Teal. 

The suggested amendment to Section 3 was addition of a clause 
regarding eggs and nests. This suggestion is now against brought 
to notice as desirable. 

'To take or possess, to sell or buy, or offer to sell or buy, an egg 
or eggs or nest of any such bird.' 
Agricultural Lands 

Here lies the clash between the interests of Man and Animal ; for 
which there are two main reasons. 

Firstly, the population of the country is increasing by about five 
millions yearly, so the areas under cultivation are extending, and must 
continually extend to the utmost limit, which means the continual 
absorption of all cultivable waste lands and secondary forest lands. 

Secondly there is the imperative need of protecting present and 
future cultivated lands from wild animals. 

In some parts, where cultivation is contiguous to or near Reserved 
Forests the depredations of wild animals present one of the most serious 
handicaps the cultivator has to face. The animals are not only deer 

§ (609) 



108 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

and pig and some species of birds, but nilgai, monkeys and parrots which 
are protected by religious beliefs. 

'Human progress must continue, and in the clash of interests 
between Man and the Animals human effort must not suffer. But 
this problem has been faced by other countries. Cannot a reasonable 
effort be made to face it in our own ? That an intensive development 
of the agricultural resources of a country may accompany a sane and 
adequate policy for the conservation of its wild life is shown by the 
measures taken to this end by all progressive countries' (Prater). 

But in those countries there is universal literacy, a people easily 
educated to a proper public opinion, and where the masses do not 
clamour for possession of guns and rifles and even for repeal of the 
Arms Act. 
Waste Lands 

These are beyond redemption as to wild life, and in any case all 
that are at all cultivable will soon be merged with Agricultural lands. 
Private Lands 

The general concensus of opinion is that in most ordinary tracts 
the position is hopeless. The people have been educated to destroy, 
and there is no agency to stop it. Only through the owners themselves 
and through propaganda can any change be wrought: and before 
these operate the position is likely to be beyond any remedy. 

Some private lands, however, have forests for which rules have 
been framed to regulate hunting and shooting, while in others no rules 
have been framed. The wild life situation in all these depends on the 
amount of control exercised by the land-owners. Some United Pro- 
vinces land-owners maintain renowned Swamp Deer preserves. 

The Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act, 1912, deals with the 
right of private owners only in so far as it prohibits the shooting of 
the specified animals whether on private lands or elsewhere. This 
prohibits private owners killing females of deer, etc., and killing 
during prescribed close seasons. 
Government Forests 

These are of several kinds and mostly under the Forest Depart- 
ment, but some are under Revenue Department; none of the latter 
are Reserved Forests. 

While it is essential that the cultivator should have reasonable 
latitude to defend his property, it is equally essential that there should 
be certain areas of Reserved Forests, where the laws and rules for 
protection of wild life are, or should be, rigidly enforced. 

State-owned Reserved Forests, similar forests in the Indian States 
in the Terai tracts of the frontier States of Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and 
some private forests are now, and must continue in future to remain 
the natural sanctuaries for wild life in this country. 

That purpose they would adequately fulfil as regards most of the 
species in the Schedule were they adequately guarded. That is the 
crux of the whole problem. And with that is linked the proper en- 
forcement of the relevant laws and rules governing the possession and 
use of firearms and the control of legitimate sport. 

Legitimate Sport 

' Shooting Rules and licence conditions for Reserved Forests as at 
present framed for the several Provinces and Districts, also for some 
of the larger States, are good and well adapted to local conditions. 

9 (610) 



WILD LIFE PRESERVATION IN INDIA— INDIA'S VANISHING ASSET 109 

They provide against all conditions, all malpractices, including the 
motor vehicle and use of torch against deer. 

Licence fees are on the whole rather cheap; and where the 
Shooting Block System does not obtain, and District or Forest Division 
licences are issued for a whole year on payment of a very small fee, the 
introduction of the Block System would cause a larger number of 
sportsmen to visit the forests. This is productive of much good, for 
when right-thinking sportsmen are in the forests, poaching is held in 
check for the time being; and the sportsman can (or should) report 
such malpractices as come to his notice. 

The short term licence system also enables the controlling officer 
to regulate the number of species, whether deer, etc., or carnivora, 
for each block in his Division. Such control preserves the balance 
of Nature and aids efficient protection. 

Where a change is necessary is the adoption everywhere of the 
Assam arrangement by which the sportsman has to pay a fixed royalty 
for each animal shot by him under his licence. The system makes 
sportsmen more careful as to animals they shoot at, and aids needed 
funds for a Wild Life Department. 

Wild Life and/or Game Associations 

Where these exist they are, if well organized and conducted, wholly 
productive of good. There is the Association for the Preservation of 
Game in the United Provinces through which the All-India Conference 
for the Protection of Wild Life was held at Delhi in January 1935 and the 
Hailey National Park established in the Kalagarh Forest Division. 
At the Conference it was declared that, "Indian Wild Life could only be 
saved by Public Opinion, and that legislation, however efficient, could 
do little in matters like these without the whole-hearted support of the 
Public". How true. Where is the Public Opinion? Where is the 
support of the Public 7 What is the state of wild life at this thirteen 
years later date 9 

In Northern Bengal are three Shooting and Fishing Associations: — 

(1) Darjeeling Fishing and Shooting Association. 

(2) Tista-Torsa Game and Fishing Association. 

(3) Torsa-Sankor Game and Fishing Association. 

In Madras is the 69 years old Nilgiri Game Association but for 
which little wild life would now exist in that district. Continuity of 
purpose, efficient control. 

In 1933 an Association for the Preservation of Wild Life in South 
India was inaugurated at Madras by the then Governor of the Presi- 
dency, but it came to nothing and has never been heard of since then. 
Continuity of Purpose — Public Opinion these basic essentials do not 
exist. Without them there can be no effectual preservation of wild 
life for posterity. 

Natural Enemies of Wild Life 

Tigers. — Where in forest areas deer have been excessively reduced 
in number through poaching the tiger turn's increased attention to 
cattle killing. The tiger needs the pursuit of deer to satisfy his hunt- 
ing instincts, and where the balance of nature in this respect is not 
unduly disturbed he is of benefit, as also the panther, to the cultivator 
of land within the forests and along its borders, for he keeps the deer 
and wild pig population within natural limits. But where the stock 

10(611) 



110 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

of deer is unduly reduced not only are all the deer killed out but the 
tiger is forced to prey on cattle ; and as these are penned at night he 
is compelled to change his habits and hunt by day. That is when he 
takes great toll of grazing cattle and sometimes turns against the people 
also. Then the cultivators clamour for protection from the menace 
brought about by the unlawful poaching done by themselves and others. 

Panthers. — These are less destructive to village cattle as they prey 
on sounders of pig and a variety of smaller animals ordinarily ignored 
by the tiger; but they also kill cattle and other domestic stock to a 
greater extent when the balance of nature has been disturbed, in areas 
where panthers have been unduly reduced through rewards for their 
destruction there has resulted such an increase of wild pig as to necessi- 
tate rewards to reduce their number. 

Even predatory animals (not wild dogs) have a distinct value as a 
controlling influence against over-population by species whose un- 
restricted increase would adversely affect the interests of man. 

The balance of nature cannot be unduly disturbed with impunity. 

Wild Dogs. — These are wholly destructive of game animals and 
can be given no mercy. Rewards should not exceed Rs. 15 for a larger 
sum induces frauds of several kinds. Disbursing officers should have 
by them skins and skulls by which to check those produced; and skins' 
for reward must have tails and skulls attached and these be effectively 
destroyed when reward paid. 

Best methods for reducing wild dog population are through digging 
out breeding lairs, and strychnine poisoning of carcasses by instructed 
persons. 

Crocodiles. — In the jungles of India the crocodile is not the menace 
to human life that he is in Borneo, Sumatra, etc., and Africa. But where 
there are dry- season jungle pools in reserved and other forests croco- 
diles do an enormous amount of damage to all creatures, deer especially, 
which are forced to drink at those places. 

It should be the duty of the Wild Life Department to destroy as 
many of them as possible. Visiting sportsmen should also give help 
in the matter. 

Unnatural Enemies 

Cattle diseases. — A great cause of much periodical mortality to 
buffalo and bison is through rinderpest. Against the introduction of 
this by grazing cattle effective action has been found impossible. 

Crop Enemies 

Elephants. — Effective legislation was enacted in 1873 and 1879 to 
protect the elephant. In these days of mechanical haulage the preser- 
vation of these animals is not necessary in such large number as 
formerly. In some areas it is now very definitely necessary that regu- 
lated thinning out of herds and crop protection methods be initiated 
to protect land- owners and cultivators from the great damage they suffer. 
This should be done by the suggested Wild Life Department on systems 
to meet local conditions. 

There is also the need to have proclaimed rogues speedily dealt 
with. In most cases these animals have become dangerous because 
cultivators wound them by use of inadequate weapons. Local sports- 
men may or may not be available to quickly deal with these beasts with 
consequence of further delay and more loss of life and properly. 

11 (G12) 



WILD LIFE PRESERVATION IN INDIA— INDIA'S VANISHING ASSFT 111 

Where elephants have to be thinned out or killed the Wild Life 
Department's specially recruited and trained set of men — 6 to 8 for 
each Province needing them — armed with Government rifles and con- 
trolled by the Provincial Warden can be directed to the area. They 
would also deal with proclaimed carnivora. 

It can be anticipated that the demand for elephants in India will 
before long be reduced to the few needed for timber extraction in difficult 
areas, for riding and transport duties by the Forest and Wild Life 
Departments, for ceremonial purposes, for ivory, and for zoological 
purposes. 

Therefore it can be reasonably said that elephant herds in some 
areas— Southern Circle, Bombay, North Coimbatore, Kollegal and 
the Wynaad for instance — could be reduced to a minimum; and herds 
in parts of Bengal. Assam, Orissa, in places where they may be greatly 
oppressing the cultivators could be also thinned out. 

These suggested operations would not in any way endanger the 
continuance of the species. 

Wild Pigs, — Deer and the like are crop raiders, but it is the wild 
pig which is the principal crop destroyer both in the open country, 
adjacent to the forests and within the forests. Where the balance of 
nature has not been disturbed the larger carnivores take care of the 
surplus pig population harbouring in the forests. It is not by the 
lone-working cultivator with his gun that any impression is made on the 
number of pig. 

Some 25 years ago it was realized by the Bombay Government 
that damage to crops by wild pig amounted to crores of rupees. 
Measures to deal with the trouble outside Reserved Forests included 
clearance of cactus and thorn thickets and other such coverts together 
with organization of inter- village pig drives. Those measures will 
have had good results if continued as a fixed policy, but not otherwise. 

At the time of writing (end of January 1948) the Government of 
India have been asked by the Government of the Central Provinces to 
supply arms and ammunition for use of cultivators against wild pig. 

If the weapons are used against pig only, and at organized drives 
only, good may result, but if not so controlled they will assuredly be 
turned against the fast dwindling wild life. 

.National Parks 

Those who have knowledge of the subject are of opinion that 
India is not yet ready for these. The Hailey National Park, the situa- 
tion of which conforms in most respects to conditions laid down for 
a sanctuary (Smith) is specially situated and may be a success. A full 
account of it would be welcomed by members of the Society, ' 

The Banjar Valley Reserved Forests area in the Central Provinces 
is perhaps suited for eventual status of a National Sanctuary (not Park). 
The case for it is outlined by Dunbar Brander. Buffalo, lost to it not 
many years ago could be re-introduced; otherwise it contains all the 
wild animals of the plains except elephant, lion and gazelle. Elephants 
are not wanted as there are plenty in other Provinces. 

Even fifteen years ago the area was admittedly tremendously poached. 

Sanctuaries 

All sportsmen are agreed that these are of little use unless ade- 
quately guarded and, as that has not yet been found possible in India, 

12 (G13). 



1 12 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

such areas merely become happy hunting grounds for poachers from 
far and near. The constant presence of sportsmen of the right kind 
has been found the best guarantee for preservation of wild life in 
Reserved Forests. 

There are however, tracts and forests where wise forethought and 
administration can, with the willing co-operation of the people if that 
can be obtained, do much to preserve wild life for posterity. 

Under the present re-organization of India a number of the 
smaller States, and many lands privately owned, within which wild 
life has had no regulated protection, will now be brought within the 
laws of the rest of the country to the benefit of wild life in all its aspects 
— if the laws are properly enforced. 

The notable contributions on the Problem of Wild Life Preserva- 
tion by Mr. S. H. Prater, the Society's Curator, on the 10th August 
1933, and by forest officers for India, and Smith and Hubback for 
Burma are of the greatest value and recommended for careful study 
by all governments in this country. 

A Wild Life Department 

Forest Officers of the regime now ending have been of opinion 
that animals inside Reserved Forests should not be removed from the 
protection of the Forest Department and placed in the charge of a 
separate department. Their argument has been that the present system 
has worked well; such action would create resentment and alienate 
the all-important sympathy of the powerful Forest Department; £nd 
that a Game Department would be in no better case than the Forest 
Department for dealing with breaches of laws and rules. 

On the other hand sportsmen and others with many years of 
experience are of opinion that under the present changed conditions 
Forest Officers, while not relieved of all responsibility, should be 
relieved of their present whole-time onus and share the burden of pre- 
servation of wild life with a specially organized Wild Life Department. 

Why should not the two departments work amicably in liaison? 
There need be no friction. The appointment of Honorary Wardens 
has not always proved a success, not on account of any disagreements 
but because the conservation of wild life is a whole time duty which 
no man with other interests and work to do can efficiently perform. 
There could be Honorary Wardens to assist the Government Wardens 
and enthusiasts could be found for that work. 

It has not been that all Forest Officers have been keen on the pre- 
servation of the larger game animals; some sylviculturists have expressed 
definite opinions against any deer being allowed in the forests, but movable 
fencing has been found a sufficient protection to special plantations. 

In these days of intensive exploitation of timber and forest pro- 
duce the work of forest administration has become more and more 
exacting and the officers find it exceedingly difficult to give time in 
office and out of doors to work which brings in no revenue and is consi- 
dered of subsidiary importance. 

Would not Forest Officers welcome the considerable measure of 
relief which the formation of a Wild Life Department would afford 
them ? Surely they would. Neither their pay nor their prestige would 
be in any way affected. 

It has been experienced that an unbribable staff of Game Watchers 
has been difficult to procure. That again is strong reason why there 

13 (6H) 



WILD LIFE PRESERVATION TN INDIA— INDIA'S VANISHING ASSET 113 

should be whole time Wardens whose interest would be to prevent 
malpractices. 

A Wild Life Department means that continuity of purpose with- 
out which all endeavour is of no avail. 
Money and Funds 

The whole question is a matter of money. 

Wild life cannot be effectually conserved without spending money 
on an organization for the purpose. It is necessary to recognize the 
fact "that there is an intimate connection between the revenue derived 
from wild life resources and the amount of money that can be spent 
on conservation. 

This is the basis on which the financial policy should be built, 
together with the recognition that wild life is a national asset and it is 
the responsibility and duty of the State to preserve it. Therefore the 
fund will need such State grants as may be necessary to make the 
department effective, more especially in the commencing years. 

It should not be possible for funds to be cut off, reduced or abro- 
gated by governments. The Wild Life Fund, as it might be termed, 
should not be within the control of any Finance Department, Central 
or Provincial. It should be established by law, kept apart from 
General Revenues, earmarked for conservation of wild life and pro- 
tected from any possible raiding of it or interference by the Legislatures. 

Staff 

It is useless to build up a staff knowing that its position is insecure 
and at the whim of some ephemeral office holder. 

It would be for the Central Government to decide on the method 
of establishing the fund, its control and other measures considered 
necessary in regard to it. 

Funds 

It is reasonably argued that the considerable revenue accruing 
to the government, both directly and indirectly, through existence of 
wild life in this country should be applied to the conservation of the 
resource or as this contribution has endeavoured to demonstrate, the 
resource will continue to dwindle and eventually vanish. 
Suggested Receipts and Expenditure: — 
Receipts 

1. Customs duties — import of sporting arms and ammunition. 

2. Licence fees — dealing in sporting arms and ammunition. 

3. Licence fees — inland transport of sporting arms and ammu- 

nition. 

4. Licence fees — possession t>f sporting arms and renewal of 

same. i 

5. Licence fees — (if any) Crop-protection weapons. 

6. Licence fees — shooting in Government Forests. 

7. Licence fees — elephant catching in Government Forests. 

& Royalties on animals shot or wounded in Government 

Forests. 
9. Fines for breaches of shooting rules in Government Forests. 

10. Fines, costs and sums received for compounding of offences 

against shooting rules. 

11. Court fines for offences against wild life laws and/or rules. 

12. Receipts on sales of confiscated articles. ' : 

8 14 (615) 



I • . , , . . . 

114 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

13. Sales of picked-up tusks, horns and produce of animals 

destroyed by Departmental Control Staff. 

14. Sales of skins of carnivora on which rewards paid. 

15. Sales of tusks not allowed to sportsmen in some cases. 

16. Licence fees for fishing in Government Forest waters. 

17. Any other items accruing, such as donations and/or sub- 

scriptions to Wild Life Fund, income on Films produced by 
the Department and other miscellaneous items. 

18. A special contribution towards game conservation (as is 

done in France) automatically levied at the same time 
as fees 4, 6, 7 above. 
Expenditure 

1 . Salaries and allowances of officers. 

2. Do do. and clothing of staff. 

3. Transport of officers and staff. 

4. Building and maintenance of Offices. 

5. Do do. of living quarters for officers and 
staff. 

6. Purchase and maintenance of weapons and ammunition for 

animal control. 

7. Rewards for destruction of carnivora and other pests. 

8. Rewards to Forest Guards. 

9. Payments to informers. 

10. Court expenses. 

11. Stationery and correspondence. 

12. Contingencies. 

13. Sinking Fund for leave, gratuities and pensions. 

14. Improvement of Scanty water supplies. 

Organization 

Some suggestions 

The Central Game Fund to be maintained in the office of the 
Ministry for Agriculture. The Wild Life Department to be finked 
through the Ministry of Agriculture with the Provincial Agricultural 
and Forest Departments. 

Each Province to have a Provincial Warden, and as many Deputy 
Wardens as found advisable or necessary. These Wardens to rank with 
Conservators and Deputy Conservators of Forests respectively, and Game 
Rangers and Guards with corresponding Forest Department ranks. 

Should the idea of a Wild Life Department be considered a suitable 
committee could work out all details. Recruitment of staff would 
need to be through careful selection of applicants in all grades; and 
there would have to be deputation of some of the Provincial Wardens 
to America and other countries to acquire knowledge of principles, 
methods, and all useful details. 

Propaganda. — During the years 1932 to 1936 there was a good 
deal of wild life propaganda in the public press at the instance of the 
U.P. Association, also in South India, but all that quickly died down. 
Then came the war years and now the present difficult times. Wild 
life has greatly suffered. 

Educative propaganda needs constant reminders and exhortations 
to the public. Only if the subject is frequently repeated will it gain 
a hearing. 

It is commonly said that it will take years and years to arouse 
public opinion as to wild life. But we daily see what the present 

15 (616) 



WILD LIFE PRESERVATION IN INDIA— INDIA'S VANISHING ASSET 115 

leaders of public opinion in this country can do in many "ways vitally 
affecting the present and future lives of the masses, how speedily laws 
are enacted and far-reaching measures put into motion. There is 
for instance, the vast organization for further education of the literates 
and the initiation of universal literacy for the masses. There seems 
to be no reason why wild life preservation could not also be given 
the highest priority. Some of the reforms could wait, not that they 
should, far from it, but the wild creatures cannot wait — and survive. 

Wild life preservation does not only mean the protection of animals 
and birds, it means a fight against the destruction which is going on 
at an increasing pace — particularly against deer — and is not of Nature's 
ordering. It is simply asserting the right to live of the undomesticated 
animals and indigenous birds. 

An atmosphere of mistrust and suspicion is all too common among 
uneducated people, so the beneficial intentions of measures towards wild 
life preservation are apt to be misconstrued unless the objects and 
reasons receive the widest publicity through Government channels, 
and the newspapers. 

The years are passing; this great national asset is wasting away. 
It is the duty of every government to preserve it for posterity. The 
urge should come from the highest levels. 

Propaganda Methods 

The time is now. 

The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting could make it a 
routine matter to keep this subject constantly before all classes of the 
people. Special talks could be given on All-India Radio, and other 
systems. 

The Educational Department could cause all governing bodies 
and educational institutions to issue pamphlets, organize lectures, 
lantern slide talks, and issue of suitable leaflets to all colleges, high 
schools and primary schools. All this could be worked out on the 
lines of the anti-malarial campaign which was an India-wide effort. 
But it must be a continued effort. 

For the literate classes there are the newspapers and other publica- 
tions as media for propaganda; and for all classes there is. the cinema 
screen. 

Suitable slogans could be devised and shown as a routine matter 
at commencement and during intervals of all cinema shows, accom- 
panied twice a week by a short talk in regional languages. 

In 1944 (14-1-1944) the Natural History Society resolved that a 
popular Nature Magazine be published by the Society, and in 1947 
(5-6-1947) it was decided that simple natural history booklets bej issued 
in the several languages. The magazine idea was held up during the 
war years but measures to give effect to both resolutions are now in 
progress. 

Moral support of the Government is essential and financial aid a 
necessity. 

A Brief for Action 

1. A decision by the Governments. 

2. Issue of a general law to prohibit sale, possession, marketing 

of meat, hides, horns, etc., of indigenous animals and 
of birds. 

16 (617) 



116 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

• 

3. Enforcement of Arms Licence rules and conditions. 

4. Enforcement of Jaws and rules under Act VIII of 1912 and 

Act XIV of 1927. 

5. Formation of a Wild Life Department. 

6. Propaganda. 

7. Generally all possible steps towards saving wild life. 
Through the continued efforts of their .leaders the peoples of India 

were roused to political consciousness. Through their long sustained 

efforts they attained political freedom. Will the leaders and the people 

not now demonstrate to other civilized nations that they are equally 

capable of preserving wild life for posterity ? Surely they will. Because 

they should, and because it is demanded for the prestige of India. 
* * * 

It was the intention of the Society and the writer to submit this 
pamphlet to Mahatma Gandhi with appeal for his powerful advocacy. 
Alas ! it was not so ordained. 

.Yet, in view of the late Mahatma's well-known sympathy with all 
things created, it may surely be hoped that the peoples of India and 
of Pakistan will respond to this appeal in accordance with what would 
without doubt have been his wishes and his guidance for the preserva- 
tion of wild life in this country. 

References 

1. Hon. Secretary: Correspondence with Ahmedabad Municipality as to work- 

ing of Act XX, 1887, J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 3, p. 138 (1888). 

2. Society Proceedings: Protection of Game, C.P. Reserved Forests. J.B.NH.S., 

Vol. 4, pp. 74-82 (1888). 

3. Correspondence with Government: Protection for Insectivorous Birds, Bengal, 

also Bombay, J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 4, pp. 124-130 (1889). 

4. Correspondence with Government : Protection of Game Birds in C.P, 

J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 6, pp. 87-100. 

5. Society Proceedings: Proposed introduction of non-indigenous birds and 

animals into certain areas, Bombay Presidency. Also huge decrease of 
antelope and many birds in past 10 or 15 years. J.B.N. H.S., Vol. 6, 
pp. 119-123 (1891). 

6. Correspondence with Government : Protection of wild birds and animals. 

Rules under Forest Act. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 6, p. 281 (1891). 

I, Correspondence with Government: Decrease of wild birds in Sind, and 

plumage traffic. J.B.N.H.S., Vol, 6, p. 282 (1891). 

8. Correspondence with Government: Wholesale destruction of game birds, 

Sind. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 6, p. 487 (1891). 

9. Correspondence with Government : Protection of birds and harmless wild 

animals, Mahableshwar. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 7, p. 530 (1892). 
10. Correspondence with Government: Thanks of Bombay Government to 
Society. List of cantonments and municipalities for which Rules framed 
by Government. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 7, p. 532 (1892). 

II. Niligiri Game Association Report: J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 8, p. 535(1893). 

12. Correspondence with Government: Shooting in Bombay Presidency. Rules 

under Indian Forest Act. J.B.N. H.S., Vol. 16, pp. 522-525 (1905). 

13. Correspondance with Government: Protection of birds, Bombay Presidency, 

list of municipalities to which Act XX applied. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 17, p. 231 
(1906). 

14. Railway Conference, Simla: Action by Indian Railways to assist Rules 

under Act XX, 1887. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 18, p. 482 (1907). 

15. Correspondence with Government: Close time for Quail and Bustard, 

Bombay Presidency. J.B.N. H.S., Vol. 18, p. 665 (1908). 

16. Action by Government as to above.' Vol. 18, p. 894 (1908). 

17. P. T. L. Dodsworth, F.Z.S. : Protection of wild birds in India. Review 

of world situation regarding traffic in plumage, etc. References to Acts 
and Rules in force in India. Exhaustive article on the subject. J.B.N.H.S., 
Vol. 20, pp. 1103-1114 (1910). 

17 (618) 



WILD LIFE PRESERVATION IN INDIA— INDIA'S VANISHING ASSET 117 

18. J. E. C. Jukes, I.C.S. : Criticism of close time Tor birds and animals, Bombay 

Presidency. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 19, pp. 216-219 (1909). 

19. Correspondence with Government: Draft Bill for protection and preservation 

of game in India. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 19, pp. 220-224 (1908). 

20. St. G. DeCarteret : Nate on preservation of game in C. P. Snaring of Birds 

and need to preserve buffalo. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 21, pp. 1343-1347 (1912). 

21. Commissioner in Sind : Legislation enacted to prevent cruelty to wild- 

fowl. J.BN.H.S., Vol. 21, p. 1356 (1912). 

22. New Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act VJI1 of 1912. Repeals Act 

XX, 1887. The Act printed in full in the Journal. J.B.N H.S., Vol. 22, 
p. 205 (1912). 

23. G. C. Howell, I.C.S. : Suggested amendments to above. J.B.N.H.S., 

Vol. 24, p. 380 (1916). 

24. Editors: Wild Life Preservation. Important editorial. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 31, 

pp. 803-804 (1926). 

25. F. Brayne, I C.S. : Proposal for a British and Indian All-Tndia Sports- 

men's Game Syndicate to further the oreservation of game, J.B.N.H.S., 
Vol. 31, p. 1020 (1927). 

26. Editors : Members asked to assist the Empire Fauna Society. J.B.N.H.S., 

Vol. 32, p. 199 (1927). 

27. Lt.-Col. E. G. Phythian-Adams : Game Preservation in Nilgiris. J.B.N.H.S., 

Vol. 32, pp. 339-343, also Vol. 33, pp. 947-951 (1927 and 1929). 

28. Editors : Game Preservation in India. Important editorial. J.B.N.H.S., 

Vol. 32, pp. 359-365 (1927). 

29. Col. M. Logan Horns : Misc. Note. Game Preservation in India. 

J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 32, pp. 581-582 (1927). 

30. Lt.-Col. C. H. Stockley : Game Preservation in India. Sale of meat, etc. 

Elephant control necessary. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 32, p. 783 (1928). 

31. Editors : New Game Laws, Mysore State. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 33, pp. 187- 

188 (1928). 

32. Editors : Control of trade in lizard skins, Bengal. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 33, 

pp. 185-186 (19285. 

33. W. W. A. Philips. F.Z.S. : Present State of Wild Life and Game in Ceylon. 

J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 33, pp. 942-946 (1929). 
33 (a). W. W. A. Philips. F.Z.S. : Suggestion for fixed period close season for 
all animals and birds in each year. Remarks on sawn-off shot guns for 
cultivators. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 33, p. 987. 

34. Honorary Secretary : Report to Society's Meeting. Game Preservation : 

growing importance of subject . J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 34, p. 605(1929). 
Address to the Meeting by H. E. Sir Frederick Sykes, Governor of Bombay, 
on need and methods of Game Preservation. Vol. 34, pp. 607-608 (1929). 

35. Problems of Wild Life Preservation. Special series. Illustrated, Foreword 

by Lord Willingdon, Viceroy of India, 
(i) Introductional Survey of the Indian Empire and the Problem by 

Mr. S. H. Prater, M.L.C., C.M.Z.S. Society's Curator, at- the 

Jubilee Meeting of the Society, Bombay, 10th August 1933. 

J.B.N.HS., Vol.' 36, No. 4, 1933. 
(ii) The Central Provinces. By A. A. Dunbar Brander, Conservator of 

Forests. Vol. 36, No. 4. 
(iii) Th'e Bombay Presidency. By G. Monteith, I.C.S. Vol. 36, No. 4. 
(iv) Assam. By A. J. W. Milroy, Conservator of Forests. Vol. 37, No. 1. 
(v) The United Provinces. By F. W. Champion, Conservator of Forests. 

Vol. 37, No. 1- 
(vi) The Indian Lion. By Sir Patrick Cadell, Kt., C.S.L.. C I.E. .Vol. 37, 

No. 4. 
(vii) Wild Life Protection in Burma. By H. C. Smith, Deputy Conservator 

of Forests, Honorary Game Warden. Vol. 37. No. 4. 
(viii) The Madras Presidency. Bv R. D. Richmond, I.F.S. (Retd.). Vol. 38, 

No. 2. 
(ix) Comments on Mr. Richmond's Note. By R. C. Morris. Vol. 38, No. 2. 
(x) Mysore. By Major E. G. Phythian-Adams, I.A., F.Z.S. Vol. 38, 

No. 2. ^. 

(xi) Hyderabad State. By Salim Ali. Vol. 38, No. 2. ^* 

36. C. H. Tutein-Nolthenius : Short History of Ceylon Game and Fauna 

Association. Review by R. W. B. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. ?5, p. 665 (1932). 

37. C. H. Tutein-Nolthenius: Exploitation of Wild Life in Ceylon. J.B.N. H.S-, 

Vol. 37, p. 219 (1933). 

18(619) 



118 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

38. Stanley Jepson : Plea for Protection of Wild Life by Legislation. J.B.N.H.S., 

Vol. 37, p. 748 (1934). 

39. Lieut.-Col. R. W. Burton : A Game Sanctuary in Ceylon. J.B.N.H.S., 

Vol. 38, p. 19. 
39 (a). Society's Proceedings. Report by Honorary Secretary. Comments on Delhi 
Conference, 1935. Need for wild life agency within the Forest Depart- 
ment. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 38, p. 223. 

40. Note on Burma Wild Life Protection Act. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 39, p. 606 (1937). 

41. R. C. Morris: General Close Season for Big Game not beneficial. J.B.N.H.S., 

Vol. 39, p. 621 (1937). 

42. Theodore Hubback: Principles of Wild Life Preservation. J.B.N.H.S., 

Vol. 40, p. 100(1938). 

43. Review by T. H. : Annual Game Report, Uganda, 1937. J.B.N.H.S., 

Vol. 40, p. 317 (1938). 

44. T. H. Livesey : Systematic firing of forests on hill sides causes erosion and 

much wild life damage, Burma. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 40, p. 569 (1938). 

45. Theodore Hubback : Rhinoceros exterminated by greed and superstition, 

Malaya, Burma, India. J.B.N. H.S., Vol. 40, pp. 612-616(1938). 

46. D'Arcy Weatherbe : Foreword by Theodore Hubback. The Kahilu 

Rhinoceros Sanctuary, Burma, India. JB.N.H.S , Vol. 41, p. 146 (1939). 

47. Lt.-Col. E.G. Phythian-Adams : The Nilgiri Game Association, 1879- 

1939. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 41, pp. 384-396 (1939). 

48. D'Arcy Weatherbe : Burma's decreasing Wild Life. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 42, 

pp. 150-160 (1939). 
48(a) Theodore Hubback : Salt-licks. Their vital importance to the Conser- 
vation of Wild Life in Malaya. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 42. pp. 518-525(1941). 

49. Humayun Abdulali : Partridge snaring by wandering tribes. J.B.N.H.S., 

Vol. 43, p. 659(1942). 

50. F. G. D. Ogden : Partridge snaring by wandering tribes. J.B.N.B.S., 

Vol. 44, p. 299 (1942). 

51. Salim Ali : Birds of Mysore. Bustard, Florican, both scarce. J.B.N.H.S., 

Vol. 44, p. 211 (1942). 

52. Major H. G. Rossell : Note on Yala Sanctuary, Ceylon. J.B.N.H.S., 

Vol. 44, p. 311 (1943). 

53. E. O. Shebbeare : A Malayan National Park. The King George V 

Memorial Park. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 46, pp. 558-562 (1946). 

54. Honorary Secretary : Ceylon Game and Fauna Protection Society Annual 

Report. 54th Season (1947). 

55. Association for the Preservation of Game in U.P. Annual Report, 1933. 

By Joint Honorary Secretaries, Major J. Corbett and Hasan Abid Jafry. 

56. W. F. H. Ansell : A Note on the position of Rhinoceros in Burma. 

J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 47, pp. 249-276 (1947). 

57. R. W. Burton : Wild Life Preservation : India's Vanishing Asset. 

J.B.N. H.S., Vol. 47, pp. 602-622 (1948). 

58. R. W. Burton : Wild Life Preservation : Birds. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 47, 

p. 778 (1948). 

59. R. W. Burton : Wild Life Preservation : Animals. J.B.N.H.S., Vol. 47, 

p. 780 (1948). (But see Bombay Govt. Gazette, Agricultural and Forest 
Department. No. 3583-J.D./- 18-8-1950 to Hon. Sec, B.N.H.S., referring 
to Shooting Rules published in Bombay Gazette Notn., Rev. Dept. No. 4177- 
B.D./- 17—4—1946, which points out wrong statement as to wild dogs and 
close seasons.) 

60. Lt.-Col. E. G. Phythian-Adams : Sportsmanship and etiquette in shooting. 

Vol. 47, pp. 684-689 (1948). 

61. C. H. Donald : My experience with pheasant breeding in Dharamsala 

Cantonment. Vol. 47, pp. 753-757 (1948). 

62. Charles, W. Quaintance : Mortality within nests of tropical birds. 

Vol. 47, p. 753 (1948). 

63. R. W. Burton : Preservation of wild life in India. Vol. 48, pp. 290-299 

(1949). (This is a Supplement to No. 57 ante.) 

64. Conservation of wild life : Appendix to Honorary Secretary's Report 

covering the period January-July, 1948. Vol. 47, p. 792. 

65. Nature Education and Conservation of wild life. Appendix to Honorary 

Secretary's Report covering the period January — July, 1949. Vol. 48, 
pp. 623-624. 

66. Salim, A. Ali : Proceedings and Papers, International Conference on the 

Protection of nature. Lake Success, 22 to 29-8-1949. Edited by the 

19 (620) 



WILD LIFE PRESERVATION IN INDIA- INDIA'S VANISHING ASSET 119 

Secretariat of the I. U.P.N. "The Great Indian One-horned Rhinoceros 
in Assam Province, India." 

67. M. D. Chaturvedi : Preservation of wild life with comment by Lt.-Col. 

R. W. Burton. Vol. 48, pp. 588-591 (1949). 

68. R. C. Morris : What are the causes of the disappearance or reduction of 

fauna species from certain areas ? Vol. 48, p. 592 (1949). 

69. K. K. Neelakantan : A South Indian Pelicanry. Vol. 48, pp. 656-666 

(1949). 

70. S. R. Daver : A Novel method of destroying man-eaters and cattle-lifters 

without firearms. Vol. 49, pp. 52-66. Including comments by 
R. W. Burton (1950). 

71. R. W. Burton : Game Sanctuaries in Burma (pre. 1942). Vol. 49, pp. 

729-737- (1951). With present status of rhinoceros and thamin. 

72. Jamal Ara : Wild Life Reserves in India, Bihar Province. Vol. 48, 

pp. 283-287 (1949). 

73. E. P. Gee : Wild Life Reserves in India, Assam. Vol. 49, pp. 81-89 

(1950). 

74. R. W. Burton : Wild Life Reserves in India, Uttar Pradesh. Vol. 49, pp. 

749-754 (1951). At p. 752 dele Kansrau. (A description of the Kansrau 
Sanctuary is in Vol. 51, p. 160 (1952). 

75. R. W. Burton : The International Union for the Protection of Nature. 

Vol. 49, pp. 809-814 (1951). 

76. R. W. Burton : The Protection of World Resources. Wild Life and the 

Soil. Vol. 50, pp. 371-379 (1951). 

77. Bombay Wild Animals and Wild Birds Protection Act, 1951 : The text of 

the Act printed in full. Introductory Notes by the Editors — Statement of 
Objects and Reasons. Vol. 49, pp. 815-832 (1951). 

78. Shooting of Peafowl and Antelope (Blackbuck) prohibited in Madras 

State. (Reprint from Madras Information, 5 (7), 34, July 1951.) (This 
Notification is under Section 3, Central Act VIII of 1912.) 

79. Bombay National Parks Act, 1950 : Society gratified with the passing of 

this Act which provides for a nominee of the Society on the Advisory 
Committee. Vol. 50, p. 441 (1951). 

80. R. W. Burton : A History of Shikar in India. Vol.- 50, pp. 845-869 

(1952). ' Wild Life Preservation ' at pp. 860-864. 

The genesis of this Compendium is at p. 863 of " A History of Shikar in 
India". [Vol. 50 (1952) ]. Reference 5 (j). 

p. 863. A Central Board for Wild Life : This Board was constituted at Delhi 
on the 4th April 1952 by a Minister of Food and Agriculture Resolu- 
tion. It will function through States' Wild Life Committees and will 
meet at least once in two years. 

// this Central Board and the States' Committees have before them 
in correctly summarized from the principal contents of all the main 
wildlife contributions to the Journal; the 16th October 1950 thirteen 
page Memorandum by the writer ; and the Address delivered by 
M. S. Randhawa to the Section of Botany, 35th Indian Science 
Congress, Allahabad, 1949. (Nature Conservation, National Parks and 
Bio-aesthetic Planning in India), and study and apply all that is 
practicable in them there should be good results ; but the States' Wild 
Life Committees need to be formed quickly and all that is decided 
speedily put in motion or results will be of little avail, also too little 
and too late as has proved to be the case with previous Conferences 
and Committees. 



20(621) 



Jont. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. 48, No. 2, 1949. 

4. C. PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA : 

Supplemenl to the Article Published in Vol. 47, pp. 602-622 of 
J out. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 

By Lieut.-Col. R. W. Burton, I.A. (Retd.) 

In its flora and fauna Nature has endowed this country with 
a magnificent asset which cannot fail to be appreciated by the people 
when they have been taught to realize what they possess, and the need 
for both conservation and protection. A considerable effort to that 
end was made in May this year (1948) through a 24-page pamphlet 
widely distributed by the Bombay Natural History Society in government 
and official circles in both Dominions, and publicized through the 
Press. 

Although there has been almost no response from the public, 
there are indications that the Central and Provincial Governments now 
recognize that something should be done to conserve' the varied fauna 
of the Indian Forests to save it from the gradual extinction with which 
it is threatened. 

But this is not sufficient. There is, it is submitted, urgent need 
in India for creating and stimulating, among the educated classes in 
particular, a real interest in the wild life of their country. 

Some people are even saying that wild animals are a nuisance and 
should receive no mercy, 

2. Some Aspects of Conservation 

Preservation of wild life has many aspects. Unreasoning insistence 
on the sanctity of all wild life will serve no useful purpose, since real 
human interests must prevail whenever these are in conflict with wild 
life. But all over the country, outside the reserved and other forests, 
there is much wild bird and animal life urgently in need of protection. 
Sanctuaries and National Parks are, alt very well for satisfaction of 
what little public feeling there may be in regard to wild life, but these 
alone cannot adequately - conserve the wild creatures of this great 
country. It is essential to take a long view and introduce in all primary 
and secondary schools instruction of the children on intelligent lines; 
for it is the youth of to-day who have to be the conservationists of 
to-morrow, and without the support of public opinion in the future 
no efforts by governments will give lasting results, 

3. India's Story 

'It is through our great culture, religion and art that India's 
story spread far and wide in the past' said the Prime Minister of 
India in April this year, and it is in those fields the people have now 
to vindicate their political freedom. But not least among the causes 
for the former renown of India has been that wonderful variety of 
wild life which is now the vanishing inheritance of the people of 
to-day. It is the obvious duty of the governments and the people 
to guard and preserve this asset for posterity. 

l 



PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA— SUPPLEMENT 121 

4. Value of Wild Life 

Apart from consideration of profit to the national finances and 
of national pride, the spectacle of wild birds and animals in their 
natural surroundings is one of the greatest joys of civilized man. The 
study of them and of the marvellous flora of this land of Hind can, 
«nd should, give healthy interest and recreation to all classes. 

In power politics a well informed public opinion is the world's 
greatest security. So also in regard to wild life; real and correctly 
informed interest on the part of the public is its greatest protection. 

5. Duty of the Public and the Governments 

Improvement in the fields of public health, of growing more food, 
of preventing erosion, of drink prohibition, of conservation of fish 
supplies and many other aspects of public life cannot be satisfactorily 
achieved by government efforts alone. The public also have their 
responsibilities, and unless these are discharged by the people no amount 
of effort on the part of the government can have adequate results. So 
also in this matter of wild life protection and preservation. 

It is the obvious duty of both Central and Provincial Governments 
to employ all possible means of propaganda for the instruction and 
enlightenment of the people in their ^responsibilities such as outlined 
above. 

6. Vanishing Assets 

Much of the wild life of India, a large part of which is found 
in no other country in the world, is fading away and will certainly 
disappear unless adequately protected and conserved. In the more 
open and inhabited areas, it is the common people who have mostly 
to be relied upon to stay the hand of destruction. In the Reserved 
Forests and more remote tracts it is the man in the wilds who has to 
be taught and trusted to prevent the larger species from being reduced 
to that narrow margin which spells eventual extinction; and it is the 
weighty responsibility of the departments in control to protect the 
fauna and flora of those areas. 

This responsibility cannot be satisfactorily discharged in either 
remote or accessible areas unless the executive staff of both the Forest 
Department and the Wild Life Department (if formed) consists of 
wholly trustworthy and impeccable subordinates. 

Therein lies the success or failure of wild life protection and 
preservation in this or any other country. 

7. Value of Wild Life 

i 
In all countries the encouragement of tourist traffic is recognized 
as being of both direct and indirect value to the State. In India 
there is much for the people of other lands to see and admire. There 
is almost no end to the list of archaeological treasures, of customs 
and habits of humanity which could be cited to illustrate the inexhaust- 
ible interest of India as a panorama of the past; there are endless 
subjects for the artist and photographer in scenery, in portraiture, in 
sculpture; but prominent among the magnets for attracting tourists 
is the spectacle of wild life, and its abundant attraction for all classes 
of sportsmen and sightseers. 



122 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

8. Forestry and Wild Life 

The claims of forestry and wild life are often in conflict. The 
system that has hitherto obtained, which combines forestry with wild 
life preservation and protection, is unsatisfactory. India owes a great 
debt of gratitude to the many officers of the Imperial Forest Service 
who, throughout their service, worked continually and persistently Jo 
enforce wild life protection laws and rules, and to have them perfected. 
To them is due such stock of the larger animals — deer in particular— 
as existed at the time of the transfer of power in 1947, and has been 
already, in a number of areas, so woefully reduced. 

True preservation can never go hand in hand with true forestry. 
This has been proved in practice in many countries where it has been 
soon found that the objects and ideals of the two are sometimes 
antagonistic. 

Protection and preservation are not synonymous. Protection 
alone may, in time, do definite harm if preservation is ignored. 

To continue the protection and preservation of wild life which 
includes the organization and management of all National Parks. 
Sanctuaries, Reserves as the duty of a department already overworked, 
and none of whose officers have been trained in the required methods, 
is not practicable and should give way to better arrangements. 

9. Necessity for a Wild Life Department 

In other countries, which have tackled the problems of wild life 
protection and preservation with conspicuous success, forestry is under 
separate management, the two departments working in liaison when 
and where necessary. 

A Wild Life Department means that continuity of purpose without 
which all endeavour is of no avail. 

'Adequate and comprehensive laws are on our Statute books. 
These laws are not being adhered to and enforced owing to the respons- 
ible department being given dual duties, their other duties coming 
first and game preservation second. The immediate need of a special 
Game or Wild Life Department cannot be overstressed' (Editorial in 
June 1948 issue of the Journal of the Ceylon Game and Fauna Protec- 
tion Society). 

This is the situation in India at the present time. 

10. Duties of Wild Life Departmental Wardens 

It is the first duty of a Wild" Life Department to do everything 
possible to prevent conflict between game and human interests. In 
Reserves and Sanctuaries, where such are necessary, in addition to the 
ordinary requirements of the Forest Department, roads, cart tracks 
and paths have to be kept in repair and others opened as found 
necessary. Boundaries have to be kept clean. Animals soon get to 
know these so well that they learn not to cross them during the 
shooting season in the contiguous Reserve. Rest camps and staff 
quarters have to be built and kept in good order, with wholesome 
water-supply ensured; patches of jungle have to be cleared for grazing 
and then burnt off periodically; salt-licks and water-supplies have to 
be improved or provided. Detailed maps and plans have to be 
prepared. Animals in the Parks, Sanctuaries or Reserves have to be 
observed, local habits noted, and a near census taken and plotted on 

3 



PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA— SUPPLEMENT 123 

suitable maps for periodical review. Supervision of these activities are 
the duties of the Wardens. 

Other Duties. — A Warden has to be a trained observer, able to 
train and educate his staff, also to inspire them with enthusiasm and 
real pride in the well-being of the creatures under their charge. 

From this it is obvious that all members of the staff have to be most 
carefully selected. They must be keen on the work before them; lovers 
of wild life; of sound health and good physique; amenable to discipline; 
trustworthy, and as far as possible unrelated to neighbouring population. 

In the upper grades they should be able to read and understand 
the wild life literature, which should be provided. 

A manual should be compiled for their general guidance. 

Guards and watchers should be well paid, clothed, housed and 
cared for at all times and seasons. 

11. Field Duties 

The main activities of wardens lie in the field. They have to be 
most carefully selected from among applicants who have a real interest 
in wild life. When approved, they should be seconded to other 
countries to acquire knowledge of principles, methods and all useful 
details. Besides fieldwork there will be much office work such as 
mapping of areas; receiving and tabulating reports; directing enquiry 
into cases of ordinary poaching, spotlight shooting and other mal- 
practices, and of alleged damage by animals; ordering and directing 
the destruction of proclaimed animals; issuing of licences and permits, 
suggesting and aiding publicity work; general administration of the staff; 
dealing with correspondence and returns and all sorts of other business. 

(a) One of the most important duties is the need to gain the 
willing co-operation of village headmen to whom, on his recommenda- 
tion, rewards should be granted for good work and correct influence. 

Unless village officers and revenue officials, the police, the sub- 
ordinates of the Forest Department and the general public co-operate 
with the two departments and the Government, poaching cannot be 
held in check. 

(b) A suggested check to curb night shooting from cars on roads 
passing through forests is (i) to appoint a couple of Ranger road 
patrols, provided with jeeps or motor cycles, to make surprise visits 
to the haunts of such marauders; (ii) instruct constables on duty at 
certain key-points to take numbers of all motor vehicles entering or 
emerging from jungle roads, and inspect them if need be; (iii) erect 
road barriers at night on selected roads, where motor vehicles can be 
stopped, inspected, and have -their numbers taken. 

Necessary powers could be provided for this. 

(c) As aid for enforcing laws and preventing wild life exploitation 
there should be close co-operation between the Police and Customs, 
and of both of these with the Wild Life Department. 

Is it not apparent that the Forest Department by itself cannot be 
expected to deal efficiently with all these matters, besides carrying out 
the multifarious duties pertaining to forest administration in all its 
branches? Can there be any doubt in the matter? 

12. People's Parks 

These already exist in, or near, a number of cities and larger 
rnunicipalities, and are of several kinds. A park of this description 



124 -THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

has been recently formed near Bombay and styled a National Park. 
In course of time many more People's Parks will be established; and 
in view of the greatly increasing demand for land, for all purposes, 
near fast-growing towns it is necessary that speedy steps be taken to 
acquire land for these greatly needed parks. By reason of their 
situation all such existing parks, and those to be formed in the future 
will be sanctuaries for wild birds and small animals. The lay-out of 
future People's Parks should be planned with this in mind. 

(a) In many People's Parks there could be museums to house 
archaeological, botanical, geological, natural history and zoological 
exhibits; to show pictures of birds, animals, snakes and insects for 
the interest and instruction of the public. 

Assembly of the people in these parks would afford suitable 
opportunity for loud-speaker talks by means of propaganda vans on 
wild life and kindred subjects. This is one of the many ways in which 
paragraph 5 above could be implemented. 

13. National Parks 

The more general meaning of 'National Park' is 'An area dedicated 
by statute to the preservation, not of this or that animal, but a 
community of animals, in fact, of Nature which means Nature militant. 
Nature maintaining the balance through the law of tooth and claw' 
(H. G. Maurice). These areas are' thus inalienably established for the 
preservation of the flora and fauna in all its aspects, and dedicated 
for all time to, and for, the people. 

(i) Of the famous National Parks of the world, one such is the 
Yellowstone National Park in America and another the Kruger 
National Park in Africa which has an area of 8,000 square miles and 
was in existence for thirty years before public access to it was permitted. 

(ii) In India there is the Hailey National Park in the Kalagarh 
Forest Division of the United Provinces, the precise area and design 
of which is not known to the writer. In Assam steps have been recently 
taken through notification in the Provincial Gazette to set aside an area 
of 800 square miles in the Tirap Frontier Tract to be known as 'The 
Frontier National Park' of which part of the boundary is the Indo- 
Burma frontier. 

(iii) Some people think that once National Parks are in being the 
game in the rest of the country can go, and the sooner the better. Tn 
Kenya the strong Game Policy Committee of 6 unofficial and 4 official 
members, with an unofficial chairman, appointed in 1939. held a directly 
opposite view, viz., 'the formation of National Parks will justify still 
further intensification of game control measures, where necessary, but 
will certainly not justify any policy of laxity or uncontrolled slaughter. 
Recommendations of the Committee were held up by the War, but 
early in 1945 the necessary ordinance was enacted. 

14. Sanctuaries 

Sanctuaries are of several kinds. There are sanctuaries for the 
preservation of a particular species of animal, or for a special bird or 
group of birds; for general purposes such as areas of Reserved Forest 
in which no shooting is permitted for a year, or a series of years. 
In India there is a sanctuary in Bengal for the preservation of the 
Great One-horned Rhinoceros, and several for the same species and 
also for the wild buffalo in Assam. 



PRESERVATION 6b WILD LIFE IN INDIA— SUPPLEMENT 125 

General purpose sanctuaries have been formed in Reserved Forests 
of most of the Provinces, and in a number of States. 

(a) There are also strict Natural Reserves and Intermediate Zones 
which are not so designated in India. They have these in Ceylon.- In 
the last named only, which corresponds with what we know as Reserved 
Forests, is shooting allowed under rules and conditions of licences. 

(b) It is necessary for the well being of Parks and Sanctuaries that 
Reserved Forest should be contiguous with these on all sides so that 
the surplus stock of animals may overflow, risk of cattle disease be 
lessened and guarding made less difficult'. 

'All indigenous species of fauna and flora ought to be represented, 
but the introduction of exotic types of either should be religiously 
avoided' (Stevenson-Hamilton). 

(c) Importation of cattle diseases into National Parks, Sanctuaries 
and contiguous Reserves should be guarded against in every possible 
way. Besides conveying disease, grazing cattle eat and trample down 
all vegetation, break stream banks and start gully erosion. Sand and 
silt work into pools stifling fish and aqautic life. The balance of 
nature is disturbed, the food . supply of animals greatly lessened, and 
much damage done to struggling saplings. Goats, as is well known, 
are deadly enemies to forest growth and sylviculture. 

15. Bird Sanctuaries 

In Ceylon, there are .21 Sanctuaries chiefly for the preservation of 
bird life. In India there are none, so far as known to the writer (except ■ 
one on a small scale at Seringapatam in Mysore State) specially for 
the protection of birds. In some parts of the country these are urgently 
needed for protection of egrets and other beneficial birds. 

In India, all matters concerning the protection of wild life are 
regulated by 'The Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act, VII I ' of 
1912, and by Notifications and Rules under that Act and the Indian 
Forest Act, XIV of 1927, and other measures enacted by Provincial 
Governments such as the Game Act of the Central Provinces. 

It is the opinion of the writer of this note that schedules to the 
various Notifications and Rules under the above, should only specify 
species of birds which may be shot (no snaring or other methods) 
during prescribed open seasons. They should declare birds of all other 
species to be absolutely protected throughout the year. This would 
tend to uniformity throughout the country in all the Provinces, States 
and Unions, and would much simplify matters for the public and the 
administration. It would greatly benefit the cause of wild life^ There 
is a note on the subject in the August number of the Bombay Natural 
History Society's Journal (Vol. 47, p. 780). 

Section 8 of Act VIII of 1912 provides for bona fide defence of 
property: and in the Ceylon Ordinance of 1937, Section 58 makes 
a similar provision. 

16. Ceylon Ordinance 

'An Ordinance to provide for the protection of the Fauna and 
Flora of Ceylon' became law on the 10th March 1937. This Ordinance 
embodies practically all the Regulations and Principles of the epoch- 
making Africa Convention of 1933. It is a comprehensive and well- 
thought-out Act and, if it is continually and effectively enforced should 
ensure the survival of Ceylon wild life for all time. 

6 



126 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

Although this Ordinance has existed for over 11 years it is the 
opinion of all in close touch with the question that wild life in the 
island is doomed unless a Wild Life Department is created to enforce 
the laws. 

17. Action Required 

It is suggested that the Central Board of Forestry outlined in 
paragraph 12-D. of the Proceedings of the All-India Conference of 
8th and 9th September 1948, should pass this note in review, as also 
the contents of the 24-page pamphlet referred to earlier on in this note, 
and make such representations as are found necessary or advisable for 
India as a whole, and for each of the Provinces, States and Unions. 

(a) It is hoped that the snaring of game birds, hares, antelope 
and gazelle will be wholly prohibited at all seasons throughout the 
country, for the time has long gone by when snarers should be allowed 
to earn a livelihood in that way. 

18. Formation of Sanctuaries and National Parks 

In the formation of these much forethought is necessary. They 
haye to be considered with the ultimate object clearly in view. Some 
will be just Sanctuaries, and some will be intended to pass through 
the stages of strict Natural Reserves before achieving the status of 
National Parks. Others will be designed, from the commencement, 
as National Parks and, in such cases, action would be taken after the 
most mature consideration from every point of view. All animals 
depend for their existence upon a suitable environment, and this should 
be preserved, as far as may be, intact for wild birds and animals. 

(a) Water. — 'Ordinarily, game will not graze more than six miles 
away from drinking places in the course of a day' (Kruger Park). 

Where there are perennial streams, lakes, marshy places, etc., no 
problems arise. But in some parts of India seasonal streams cease 
to flow; pools form and dry up; animals have to dig in the sand for 
water. At such times animals suffer much. They become a more easy 
prey to carnivora and the ubiquitous poacher. Not so many years 
ago, at time of a famine in the Central Provinces, animals— even tigers 
— were found drowned in wells adjacent to villages. 

In the Kruger National Park, at the present time (1948), the 
question of water-supply is a serious problem to the park authorities. 
As much as a quarter of the park area is hardly ever grazed in any 
. year, and in dry years extensive parts of the park are untouched. 

Here is an object lesson as to need for a very long view regarding 
the vital question of water-supply in all parts of the area. 

(b) Food. — Needs of all the species in the area have to be con- 
sidered. It may be necessary to de-forest selected level patches of 
jungle to provide grazing. In these, and in jungle valleys, annual 
grass-burning is a necessity, for neglect in this allows excessive growth 
of bush and thorny scrub which comes up with rapidity, blocks the 
glades, and through increasing denseness of the vegetation causes 
migration from 4he area of animals such as sambar and chital. 

To promote prosperous breeding seasons there must be plenty of 
grass and water. 

The needs of bison and buffalo have also to be thought of and 
improved if necessary. For some of the animals, and for birds, 
squirrels, monkeys and other creatures fruit-bearing trees and shrubs 

7 



PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA- SUPPLEMENT 127 

may have to be planted. In fact, the question of food also has to be 
considered in all its aspects. 

(c) Wild Buffalo. — It is desirable to foster the restoration of herds 
of these fine animals to something .approaching their former number 
in the forests of South-East Chanda, Bastar, Jeypur and other parts 
of the erstwhile Eastern States area. 

(d) The Sloth Bear. — This animal— peculiar to Ceylon, India and 
Assam — is no longer found in some parts where once common, and 
is in need of both protection and preservation. Hitherto it has not 
been protected in any area of its habitat in this country. It should 
receive protection in a number of areas from which it is fast disappear- 
ing; and should be preserved in all parks and sanctuaries situated 
within its natural habitat. 

(e) Beasts of Prey other than wild dogs, should be allowed in 
each park or reserve where they at present exist. So long as their 
numbers do not become excessive, tigers and panthers have a useful 
place in nature. If one animal is stressed at the expense of another, 
the balance of nature is upset and disastrous results may follow. The 
policy should be not to interfere with nature, unless shown by periodical 
censuses to be absolutely necessary. 

When tigers and/or panthers are unduly killed off, deer greatly 
increase, also wild pig. The deer take to barking trees in forest planta- 
tions, and both species encroach on cultivation, for which they will 
travel long distances. 

Surplus deer population, should that arise, can be controlled by 
shooting of hinds, which is a well known practice in all deer forests 
in Europe and has been found necessary in some States of the U.S.A. 
In most forests in India the carnivora exercise the necessary and natural 
control. 

The obverse is also true. In many parts of this country at the 
present time deer have been so much killed off that tigers increasingly 
prey upon the cattle and not infrequently take to man-eating. 
19. Conditions Governing the Formation of Sanctuaries 

Sanctuaries, if they are to be effective, must, among other consi- 
derations: — 

1. be suitably sited with sufficiently well distributed and per- 
manent water-supplies for the several species; 

2. be sufficiently large to allow animals to live in them all the 
year round without inducement to wander outside. About 300* square 
miles may be taken as a minimum; 

3. contain no human habitations or cultivation; 

4. comprise natural game country having abundant water, food 
and cover; 

5. be free from grazing rights, since domestic cattle ' spread 
disease besides reducing the food and water-supplies; they also dis- 
turb the forest and give opportunities for poaching; 

6. be undisturbed by timber extraction and other forest works; 

7. possess security of tenure and not be liable to sudden changes 
of constitution or control; 

8. be sufficiently inaccessible to prevent the animals being molested 
and harassed by villagers and others encroaching upon their boundaries; 

9. be sufficiently accessible to permit of frequent inspection 
by responsible officers and their staff. To facilitate this they must 
have necessary motorable roads, cart-tracks, and riding or footpaths. 



128 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

10. contain one or more 'salt-licks'. (These natural 'licks' 
are of vital importance to the conservation of wild life. Because of 
their attraction to animals they should be safeguarded from poachers 
in every possible way) (Hubback, Vol. 42, pp. 518-525, 1941). 

For each sanctuary one or more riding elephants are essential to 
facilitate proper inspection of the area at all seasons. In many forests 
this work is otherwise too exhausting to be thorough. 

20. Sportsmen 

It is most desirable that sportsmen of the right type should be given 
every encouragement to visit the contiguous reserves, as also the more 
remote forests. They should be asked to endeavour, by precept and 
example, to teach the villagers to take more interest in the local fauna 
and its protection. 

Permit-holders should be invited to enter, in the form provided 
on reverse, both positive and negative information as regards the num- 
bers and conditions of game in the Shooting Block by replies to listed 
questions such as ' How many of each species of game did you see ? 
How many tigers, panthers, bears do you think were in your block ? 
Did you see any signs of illicit shooting such as pits, machans, hides 
near water or salt-licks ? Did you hear shots fired by day or by night 
and, if so, in what locality ?' 

Remarks on headmen and shikaris would be appreciated; also 
any unusual incidents. , 

21. Conclusion 

Without a Wild Life Department as suggested herein the survival 
of much of the wonderful wild life of India is inconceivable and a 
great national asset will disappear, never to be regained as the major- 
ity of the unique species will become extinct. 

Acknowledgment for use of material is made to the editors of the 
Journal of the Society for the Preservation of the Fauna of the Empire, 
the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, the Journal' o f the 
Ceylon Game and Fauna Protection Society; also to contributors to 
the above for use of their writings, which have been of much assistance. 



Jour. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. 48, No. 2, 1949. 

4. D. WILD LIFE PRESERVATION— BIRDS 

By Lieut.-Col. R. W. Burton, LA. 

In the Madras Presidency, as far as I have been able to ascertain^ 
there has been only one Local Government Notification under Section 
3 of the Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act VIII of 1912, namely 
Notification No. 574, published at pages 1564-1566 of Part I of Fort 
St. George Gazette, dated 3rd November 1914 as amended by Notifica- 
tions No. 412 of 29th August 1916 and No. 295 of 25th June 1917. 

Under the above Notifications specified species of Orioles and 
Woodpeckers are protected all the year round; the Indian Roller, 
Grey and Red Jungle-Fowl and Red and Painted Spur-Fowl, also 
four species of Kingfisher, are provided with close season from 1st 
February to 30th June. 

Peafowl, Bustard, Florican, and indigenous duck and teal have 
a close season from 1st June to 30th September. 

Four species of Egret are protected from 1st June to end of February, 
and the Common Heron from 1st December to end of February. 

Of the species listed in the Schedule to Act VI11 of 1912 the follow- 
ing are given no protection — no close season: — 

Partridge, Pigeon, Quails, Sandgrouse 

The Notifications provide protection, etc., for certain birds in the 
Shevaroy Hills, and nothing in them affect the Nilgiri Hills. 

It is difficult to understand why the Indian Roller and the bright- 
plumaged Kingfishers should be refused all the year round protection, 
also the Egrets. 

The Indian Roller does great service to agriculture and should 
undoubtedly be wholly protected. 

Egrets are birds of much use to the cultivator, the Cattle Egret 
in particular being especially useful to the cultivator of paddy (rice), 
as it is, ' — chiefly, if not entirely, insectivorous in its diet and passes its 
life in the service of Man, clearing his fields of harmful insect pests 
and his cattle of their noxious parasites. Grasshoppers, locusts, bugs, 
beetles, ticks and blood-sucking and biting flies form their ordinary 
diet' (W. W. A. Phillips in the Ceylon Fauna Society's 'Loris' for 
June 1948). 

Throughout the world, where the species exist, the egret is renowned 
for its usefulness and should be protected throughout the y^ar. In 
Ceylon, notwithstanding complete protection under the laws, great 
slaughter of fledgling egrets and destruction of their eggs takes place, 
so it is likely that similar destruction occurs in many parts of India also 
especially in these days of meat hunger and shortage of food. 

Partridges. — In the Mysore State close season for partridge is 1st 
March to 1st September. 

At the present time (breeding season), and for years past, partridge 
and quail are quoted in the Madras Municipal Corporation, Moore 
Market price lists as available to purchasers at stated prices. It is 
possible that in parts of Madras Province within reach of large markets 
partridges are yearly becoming more and more scarce. 



130 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

Thirty-five years ago the railway companies passed orders pro- 
hibiting acceptance of wild birds and game -for rail transit during 
prescribed close seasons. In these days it is necessary that similar 
orders be issued as well to all bus owners. 

Under the Mysore State laws, Junglefowl, Spurfowl, Partridge, 

Sandgrouse, Quail, Pigeon, Bustard, Florican, Duck, Teal, Goose, 

Snipe, Demoiselle Crane, Plover, Golden Plover are provided with 

-specified close seasons. No birds other than those mentioned above 

except birds of prey may be shot. 

Omitting Bustard and Florican as having become increasingly 
scarce, and Demoiselle Crane, Plover, Golden Plover as better protected, 
while inserting Woodcock, Pheasants, Houbara and deleting the refer- 
ence to birds of prey, that is a very simple and practical law under- 
standable by all and a guide for adoption by all Provinces when the 
welcome day arrives for the whole urgent question of the Preservation 
of Wild Life to be considered by the Central and Provincial Govern- 
ments for final legislation. 



Jour. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. 48, No. 3, 1949. 

4, E. PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE 

With Comment by Lieut.-Col. R. W. Burton, I.A. 

By M. D. Chaturvedi, B.Sc. (Oxon.), I.F.S. 

Chief Conservator of Forests, and now Inspector-General of Forests 
and Vice-Chairman of the Board of Control 

Lt.-Col. Burton is to be congratulated for the missionary zeal 
with which he has championed the cause of wild life in India. Forest 
Officers who spend the best part of their lives in jungles get to know 
and love their animal associates to the extent of being jealous of sports- 
men. The credit for whatever protection was afforded to our wild 
life in the past goes to the lone forest officer who among his multifarious 
duties found time to enforce the game laws and apprehend poachers. 
In the United Provinces, it was at the initiative of the Forest Depart- 
ment that the first National Park in India was constituted. This year, . 
I succeeded in creating the Rajaji Sanctuary in the Siwaliks, which 
comprises shooting blocks once reserved for the Governor-General. 
Not unoften a Divisional Forest Officer would initiate special closure 
for deer after a severe rinderpest had taken its toll and decimated their 
number. In the Saharanpur Siwaliks, I used to arrange special water- 
ing facilities for our animals. Champion's photographic studies of 
wild life are known the world over. 

2. Far be it from me to belittle the part played by eminent 
sportsmen like Col. Burton in rivetting the attention, of the public to 
the need of preserving wild life. Officers of the civil and military 
•services have rendered yeoman service to this noble cause. 

3. While agreeing with much that Lt.-Col. Burton has said in 
his vahiable pamphlet on 'Preservation of Wild Life'* and in the 
supplement issued later, I cannot reconcile myself with the view 
expressed by him that the interests of wild life come in such sharp 
conflict with forestry, that forest officers cannot be entrusted with the 
task of looking after animals, a task which they have performed so well 
for the best part of a century. Theirs has been a labour of love. I 
do not deny our shortcomings, but I do feel that the contribution of 
several generations of forest officers towards the preservation of wild 
life deserves better appreciation. 

4. I must confess, I see the advantages of organising a separate 
Wild Life Department, the best justification for it being its ability to 
cover vast areas outside the reserved forests. In the early stages, how- 
ever, the balance of advantage would lie in enlisting both the services 
and the co-operation of forest officers in the stupendous task of pre- 
serving wild life. True, forest officers are not conversant with the 
modern technique adopted in the preservation, control and protection 
of wild life. But, what I submit for the consideration of enthusiasts 
like Lt.-Col. Burton in that after all said and done, an average forest 
officer knows far more about wild life than an average civilian or an 
agriculturist or even a sportsman. One wonders where the game 
wardens and upper grade assistants will come to be recruited from in 



* Reproduced in the Journal oj the Bombay Natural History Society, 
August 1948. 



132 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

Burton's scheme. In no other walk of life is even a nodding acquaint- 
ance with the animal kingdom available except in the forestry profession. 

5. There is at present neither need nor room for organising 
a separate Wild Life Department. Might I urge that the solution 
of the problem lies in the adoption of a middle course? The cadre of 
the Forest Department should be supplemented to enable it to organise 
wild life preservation on modern lines. What is needed is not the 
creation of a separate department consisting of a large number of 
whole-time officers, a host of clerks, menials, orderlies and other 
paraphernalia, but the appointment of regional wild life officers work- 
ing in close collaboration with the existing Forest Departments and 
their vast organisation for surveying, mapping, policing and mainte- 
nance of roads and resthouses. 

6. The sort of organisation which J envisage for the United 
Provinces is as under: — 

(i) Provincial board for the preservation of wild life. 
The board will consist of the following members: — 

(1) Honorable Minister. in charge of the forests or his 

Parliamentary Secretary (Chairman) . . . . 1 

(2) A member from each of the 2 houses of legislature . . 2 

(3) Enthusiasts from sporting circles . . . . 2 . 

(4) Chief Conservator of Forests . . . . . . 1 

(5) Director of Agriculture . . . . . . 1 

(6) Director of Veterinary Services .. .. .. I 

(7) A senior Commissioner . . . . . . 1 

(8) Provincial Wild Life Officer (Secretary) . . 1 
The functions of this board should be advisory. It will be a sort 

of standing committee to advise Government in respect of legislation 
to be enacted for the preservation of wild life. The board will direct? 
its secretary to devise ways and means to enforce existing game laws 
to afford facilities for tourists and to secure protection from and for 
wild life. The board will meet twice a year. 

(ii) The Provincial Wild Life Officer will be recruited from 
among (1) experienced forest officers noted for their studies of wild 
life and (2) eminent sportsmen. There will be no age-limit. He will 
have two regional officers to assist him who will be styled as game 
wardens. Each game warden will have 2 field assistants. 

(iii) Offices. — The Provincial Wild Life Officer will be attached 
to the Chief Conservator but will have an office of his own. Regional 
-game wardens will utilise the divisional office organisation and will 
be attached to specific divisions in which sanctuaries are situated. 

(iv) Menials. — Each Wild Life Officer will have shikari orderlies. 
7. The budget provision for the above organisation will be some- 
what as under: — 

Average 
Scale of pay annual pay 

(1) Administrative and executive staff— Rs. Rs. 

Wild Life Officer 1 .. .. 500-50-1,200 11,351 

Game Wardens 2 . . . . 250-25-400- 

E.B.-30-700- 

E.B.-50-850 14,208 

Field assistants 4 . . . . 75-5-120 5,224 



Total . . 30,783 

2 



PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE 133 



(2) Clerical establishment- 
Senior Clerk 1 . . 
Typist 1 

Junior Clerk 1 . . 
Draftsman 1 . . 



Total 







Average 


Scale of pay 


annual pav 




Rs. 


Ss. 


80-5- 


-100-6-130 


1,411 


60-3- 


-90-4-110 


1,080 


60-3- 


-90^-1 10 


1,080 


50^- 


-90-5-125 
-30 


1,264 




4,835 


25-+ 


2,064 






12,500 






4,818 




55,000 



(3) Menials — 

Shikari orderlies 6 

(4) Travelling allowance including that 

of members of the board 

(5) Contingencies, photographs, etc. 

Total . . 

8. All expenditure incurred on the preservation of wild life should 
be debited to a separate budget head. Similarly, all revenue from 

(1) Shooting and fishing fees, 

(2) Fines for breaches of shooting rules, 

(3) Sale of horns, hides, tusks and other trophies, 

(4) Sale of animal photographs, 

(5) Fees charged from sportsmen for the occupation of rest- 

houses, 
should be credited to a separate head of revenue. 

9. Associations organised in the past for the preservation of 
wild life have seldom functioned. The Association for the preserva- 
tion of Game in the United Provinces is virtually a defunct body. The 
Forest Department has contributed a sum of Rs. 1,200 per annum as 
a grant-in-aid for many years to this Association. This year, I have 
not been able to contact the Secretary, despite many reminders and no 
one is forthcoming to take the grant sanctioned by Government. 

10. Here is an inexpensive organisation which is likely to be 
self-supporting in due course. It has a fair chance of being accepted 
by Provincial Governments without much ado. Anything more 
elaborate, I am afraid, would remain an idle dream. 

[Lieut.-Col. Burton comments on the above as follows: — 

'This constructive note is the first communication regarding 
my pamphlet received by the Society, or by me, from any officer of 
the Indian Forest Service. As such it is very welcome; also because 
criticism by an experienced officer of the Forest Department has much 
value. 

Mr. Chaturvedi appears to have overlooked the handsome and 
well deserved tribute expressed in paragraph 8 of the supplement 
(published ante at pp. 290-299) to the many officers of the Imperial 
Forest Service who, throughout their service, worked continually and 
persistently to enforce wild life protection and the laws and rules in 
regard to it, and to have them perfected. 

In paragraph 4 of his note the Chief Conservator sees the 
advantages of organising a Wild Life Department. In the next para- 
graph he says there is neither need nor room for organising a separate 
Wild Life Department, and advocates a middle course which he out- 
lines in some detail. > 



134 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

In other countries it has been found that half measures are futile 
and waste of time; and that there is in fact no satisfactory middle course. 

The Chief Conservator wonders where the wardens and upper 
grade assistants will come from. Surely it can be envisaged that the 
bulk of them will be obtained from among those of the Forest Service 
who have at heart, as has the C.C.F., the interests of the wild animals, 
and birds they have seen daily in the forests through the years of their 
service. Recruitment of staff would be through careful selection of 
applicants in all grades. 

All things have a beginning. Perhaps the scheme drawn up for 
the United Provinces by the Chief Conservator will herald the com- 
mencement of the much needed all-Jndia policy envisaged in Section D 
of the proceedings of the Conference held at Delhi on the 8th-9th 
September 1948 to secure the implementation of a co-ordinated forest 
policy dealing with inter-Provincial and national matters. 

There is no matter more wholly national than the effective pro- 
tection and preservation of that Wild Life which is the Vanishing Asset 
of the peoples of this country.' — Eds.] 



4. F. NATURE CONSERVATION, NATIONAL PARKS AND 
BIO-y£STHETIC PLANNING IN INDIA 

An Address to the Section of Botany, 36th Indian Science Congress, 
Allahabad, 1949 (Abridged) 

By M. S. Randhawa, I.C.S., M.Sc, F.N.I. 

Deputy Commissioner, Ambala (E. Punjab) 

Gentlemen, the subject which I have chosen for my address — the 
problem of " Nature Conservation, National Parks and Bio-aesthetic 
Planning in India," is one not of merely botanical interest. It deals 
with a problem which requires the urgent attention of the biologists, 
administrators, legislators and all thinking citizens. The problems of 
conservation of nature attracted attention of biologists in most pro- 
gressive countries of the world. In the United States of America this 
problem was tackled as early as 1872 when the first national park for the 
preservation of fauna and flora was established. In the United Kingdom 
a special committee was appointed in 1945 with Dr. J. S. Huxley as 
Chairman and Professor A. G. Tansley as Vice-Chairman to consider 
the general problems of wild life conservation and the scientific and 
administrative requirements. The special committee submitted its 
report on "Conservation of Nature in England and Wales" to the 
Minister of Town and Country Planning who presented it to the Parlia- 
ment in July 1947. This report contains many suggestions which can 

with advantage be adopted in this country as well. 
* * * * 

The type of areas which are in need of conservation can be classified 
under the following categories: — 

I. National Parks and Nature Reserves. — National Parks may 
be defined as extensive areas of beautiful and relatively wild country 
with characteristic landscape beauty, which.are also wild fife sanctuaries 
for the preservation of big game, or other mammals and birds, in which 
access and facilities for public open air enjoyment are also provided, 
so that the "people may be able to observe wild life of all kinds in its 
natural surroundings at close quarters. There is also need of nature 
reserves in the National Parks, which act as breeding reservoirs for 
shy animals, which it is desired to encourage and which are not acces- 
sible to visitors. 

II. Geological Monuments and Other Areas of Outstanding Value. — 
These include rocks, exposures or sections which because of their great 
geological interest should be preserved as Geological Monuments, 
and which should be given the same protection as to archaeological 
buildings and monuments. These should be protected from mining, 
excavations, prospecting and drilling or similar operations. 

III. Local Educational Reserves. — These include small areas of 
local country containing representatives of local flora, which are reserved 
for educational purposes for the benefit of schools and colleges. 

National Parks 

Uncontrolled destruction of wild life has been going on in many 
countries all over the world, and as a result of this natural fauna has 
dwindled and many species have become extinct . . , With the modern 

1 



136 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

means of rapid transport such as motor car, jeep and aeroplane, the 
whole world is becoming so speedily opened up to travellers, tourists 
and traders, and with the increasing population, so much uncultivated 
land is coming under the settler's plough, that the need for the preserva- 
tion of fauna in National Parks and Reserves is being increasingly felt. 
National Parks and Reserves were originally established in the 
United States of America. There are 26 National Parks in America 

covering a total area of 1,500 square miles. 

* * * * 

The lead of U.S.A. has been followed by other countries such as 
Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa. In 
South Africa, the Sabi Game Reserve was founded in 1898, and in 1926 
it was renamed as Kruger National Park. The Albert National Park 
in Belgian Congo was created mainly due to the efforts of an American 
naturalist Carl Akeley. Due to the creation of this sanctuary for wild 
animals the Gorilla has been saved from extinction. The Swiss National 
Park is about 62 square miles in area, and arrangements are provided 
in it for enabling the student and tourist to enjoy the more spectacular 
fauna and flora. 

National Parks in India 

In India the necessity of creating National Parks has found a tardy 
recognition. Dr. Baini Prasad has thus summarised information about 
National Parks in India: 

"In 1934 a very great advance was made in the United Provinces 
through the great personal interest taken by the enlightened Governor 
of the Province, Sir Malcolm Hailey, as a result of which the National 
Parks Act of 1934 was passed. This Act provided for the establish- 
ment of National Parks and for the preservation of wild life or other 
objects of scientific interest and for incidental matters provided therein. 
As a result, the Hailey Park was demarcated as a National Park in the 
famous Path" Doon and the hill forest to the south of it consisting roughly 
of an area of 99-07 square miles. Under the Act the word 'animal' 
was defined as 'mammals, reptiles, or birds,' and it was an offence to kill, 
injure or disturb any animals or to take or destroy any eggs or nests 
of any birds in the park. The conditions under which the people were 
allowed to enter or reside in the park were laid down in the Act and 
were to be enforced by the Forest Department. In Assam certain areas 
had already been demarcated as game sanctuaries and more stringent 
action was being taken to preserve wild life which according to some 
reports had been reduced by almost 75% within recent years. Reference 
may also be made here to the Chamarajanagar Sanctuary of the Mysore 
State Forests which had been established with a view to offering complete 
immunity for animals and thereby making it possible for them to thrive 
without interference. Introduction of other animals not found in the 
area was to be attempted, and the sanctuary was to provide facilities 
for the scientific study of the life-histories of different indigenous species 
of game." 

National Nature Reserves 

There is a clear need of establishing nature reserves within National 
Parks. The principal purpose of such nature reserves, as given by the 
Wild Life Conservation Special Committee of England and Wales are 
as follows and are applicable to India also: 

Z 



NATLRE CO1SSIKVAT10N, NATIONAL PARKS & MO-AES7Hr-I]C PIANNJNG 137 

(a) "To conserve and manage, for the enjoyment and interest of 
visitors, and for the use of naturalists, students and teachers, sites of 
biological, physiographical and geological importance and characteristic 
stretches of the natural vegetation. Similar considerations would apply 
in a less degree to other areas which, though not so valuable on strictly 
scientific grounds, have just as much importance because of their general 
charm or because they contain objects of marked beauty — whether 
rocks, trees, or flowering plants. 

(b) To establish breeding reserves for scientifically encouraging 
particular species or communities of species the preservation or wider 
spread of which within the park it is desired to promote. In such reserves 
public access would have to be more or less restricted. 

(c) To set aside areas so managed as to attract rare, interesting 
and beautiful species not at present living in the park or its surround- 
ings." 

The authorities who are made responsible for the management of 
the reserves should keep close touch with University or educational 
centres, as well as main local natural history societies. A need would 
also arise of providing small handbooks on nature reserves, explaining 
with the aid of maps, photographs and sketches the scientific significance 
of the reserve. 

Local Educational Reserves 

Lack of field training for teachers as well as students, is one of the 
most serious deficiencies in current biological education in India. With- 
out field training or facilities for. nature study, teaching of Botany or 
Zoology tend to become lifeless and warped. Thus there is need of 
local educational reserves for all colleges where biological sciences are 
taught. The local Educational Reserve is the counterpart of the college 
museum and the laboratory. These reserves would open a vast and a 
stimulating field of knowledge in a discipline which trains such mental 
attributes as acute power of observation, patience, concentration, detailed 
ordering of thought, and the appreciation of form and colour. Visits 
to these reserves under proper guidance would provide a liberal education 
to the students in one of the most stimulating and formative fields of 
thought. These are gains which can not be quantified in terms of money. 
A beginning in this direction has been made in Delhi Province, where 
the local government has placed an area of 20 acres on the 'Ridge' 
at the disposal of the University of Delhi, Department of Botany. This 
piece of land will be enclosed with barbed^ wire, representative trees 
and shrubs would be labelled and efforts would be made to introduce 
other local plants also which can grow under these conditions. 

Need of New Policy 

With the liquidation of the feudal order and the merger of States 
into Unions, the problem of wild life preservation has acquired a new 
significance. Whatever may be the faults of princes and rajahs, it 
must be said to their credit that they preserved the wild animals and 
forests of their States. With the growing "demands of cultivators who 
want to save their crops from harmful animals, there is need of clear 
formulation of policy. There is immediate need of initial survey of 
all proposed National Parks Areas. While there is necessity of main- 
tenance of good vegetational balance and preservation of rich flora 
and fauna in the National Park Areas, the general wild life policy must 

3 



138 THE PRESERVATION Of WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

be such as will not prejudice the use of developed agricultural land. 
The interests of the cultivator and the lover of nature must be har- 
monised. The apprehension? of farmers that National Parks and 
Nature Reserves will develop into uncontrolled sanctuaries where pests 
and weeds willl be allowed to flourish, and which will spread into sur- 
rounding agricultural lands must be allayed. The biologists must give 
lists of harmful and useful birds and animals. While the friends of the 
cultivator should be encouraged in the National Parks, the enemies 
must be exterminated. The biologists should also give a finding whether 
campaigns should be started for the destruction of wild boars, porcupines, 
monkeys, bats and parrots who cause enormous damage to crops and 
gardens. Before any such campaigns are started, it should be ascertained 
whether wholesale destruction of certain birds or animals may not have 
harmful repurcussion elsewhere, on account of the upsetting of balance 
of power between various organisms. An action which prima facie 
may appear sensible and desirable may have far-reaching and most 
unpleasant and unforseen consequences fifty years hence. As the 
authors of the reports of 'the Wild Life Conservation Special Com- 
mittee' observe, "A conservation policy directed to maintaining any 
particular biological equilibrium entails constant vigilance and a fine- 
scale 'management' of a kind comparable to the most highly developed 
farming". The Special Committee further recommends the establish- 
ment of a National Biological Service, which should include not only 
systematists, but also others. As the Committee further observe. 
"Though the ability to recognise and name an organism is the first 
essential stage, it is by no means the last. The ecologist, the planter, 
animal physiologists, the geneticist, the student of behaviour, the soil 
scientist, the climatologists and the statistician each has his prominent 
place in the picture. But standing level wih the biological sciences, 
though too often neglected in the context of nature preservation, are 
the geological and physiographical sciences; for it is from the nature 
and distribution of the rocks and from the configuration of the 
earth's crust that the natural beauty of scenery and its living carpet are 
derived." 

The Committee further enumerates the functions of the proposed 
Biological Service as follows: — 

"(a) The scientific and practical management and maintenance 
of the series of National Nature Reserves in such a way as to provide: — 
(i) Reservoirs for the conservation of the main types of wild 
life (plant and animal species and communities) repre- 
sented in the country; 
(ii) Facilities for the conduct of fundamental and applied 

research and survey; 
(iii) Certain educational facilities for students: 
(iv) Facilities for the amateur naturalist and members of the 
public to observe and enjoy nature: 

(b) The provision of advice and the conduct of any scientific 
work that may be required by the National Parks Commission in relation 
to National Parks and Conservation Areas; 

(.") Making local representations on scientific questions affecting 
conservation (e.g., to local planning authorities and Advisory Committees) 
and the watching of sites of special scientific importance which are not 
National Reserves, with the object of interesting their owners in a sound 
conservation policy; 

4 



NATURE CONSERVATION, NATIONAL PARKS & BIO-ATSTTIET1C PLANNING 139 

t {d) The central representation of informed biological opinion 
in relation, e.g., Lo protective legislation and the effects of pest control; 

(e) The biological survey of National Reserves and the conduct 
of wider surveys, distributional recording, etc., with the ultimate aim 
of carrying out a thorough survey of wild life throughout the country 
as a continuing process since plants and animal communities are 
essentially dynamic organisations subject to rapid and far-reaching 
changes; 

(/) The conduct of, as well as the provision of facilities for 
long term -and short term field research; 

(g) The conduct of such research on problems affecting forestry, 
agriculture, drainage, water-supply, erosion and coastal accretion, land- 
scape and amenity conservation, etc., as the respective authorities may 
consider could with advantage be undertaken by the Biological Service; 

(h) The maintenance of a central bureau of information for the 
digesting and indexing of all data relevant to the work of the service 
whether derived from that work or from external sources; 

(k) The maintenance of liaison with the central and local 
authorities concerned, with other reserve-holding bodies, with academic 
and other centres of research, and with the public." 

Need of a Central Biological Service for India 

In India also there is need of a Central Biological Service under 
the Ministry of Agriculture of the Government of India to deal with 
problems relating to conservation of nature, national parks and fisheries. 
Dr. Baini Prasad, who realised the importance of this problem is also 
of the same opinion. He observes, "The multifarious problems involved 
cannot be tackled properly until the all-India nature of the problem 
is realised and a separate department of the Central Government made 
responsible for this work. While leaving the local problems to various 
Provincial Governments and Native States, a Central Department should 
be responsible for dealing with the policy of conservation of wild life 
for India as a whole". 

The Central Biological Service may be co-ordinated with the Indian 

Forest Service, and may form a part of it. 

* * * * 

Protective Legislation 

(Under this head the author refers to the January 1935 All-India 
Conference assembled at Delhi, and the Punjab Wild Birds and Wild 
Animals Protection Act of 1933, under which District Fauna Com- 
mittees with Game Inspectors and a number of Game Watchers were 
linked with District Fauna Committees with the Deputy Commissioner 
as Chairman.) i 

"There is need of protective legislation on the lines of the Punjab 
Act of 1933 in other Provinces also." 

(In regard to all this the compiler would remark that were all 
these admirable arrangements carried through with necessary continuity 
of purpose, all should have been well with wild life in Northern India, 
and the natural history education of the children — and perhaps with the 
rest of India also; for pictorial charts showing the close season and 
the birds and animal friends and foes of the cultivator were designed 
for wide circulation in schools, panchayat-ghars and police stations.) 



140 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

Nature Conservation and Soil Erosion 

Nature conservation, and conservation of soil, forests, grass-land 
and water are intimately connected ... This question is just as funda- 
mental to agriculture, horticulture, forestry, game preservation fisheries, 
etc., as it is to the management of the National Parks. 

The forest-covered Siwaliks have degenerated into bare hillocks 
which are not capable of producing enough for even the starving popula- 
tion of human beings, goats or" cattle; much less of providing food and 
shelter for wild life. 

What remedies should be adopted to check soil erosion ? Closure 
to grazing and its substitution by grass-cutting and stall-feeding, replace- 
ment of goats by sheep which are less destructive, have been suggested. 
Agricultural practice in areas in the Himalayan and sub-montane areas 
also need to be modified. Terracing, bunding, contour ridging, contour 
furrowing, crop rotation and strip cropping also require attention. 
However, the sovereign remedy is re-afforestation, and " Plant Morf, 
Trees" should be our slogan for next decade. 

Note. — Forest Officers will know that Polygonum mollc is valuable as an 
agent for reclothing landslips. 

The remaining eight pages of the Address contain valuable sug- 
gestions regarding a Bio-Aesthetic Plan and its cognate subjects. 
These, instructive though they are, need not be reproduced here for 
purposes of this compilation. Those interested may see the complete 
Address. 



4. G. A MEMORANDUM 

Memorandum submitted by Lieut. -Colonel R. W. Burton on the 16th 
October 1950 to the Under-Secretary to the Government of India 
in the Department of Scientific Research, New Delhi, for use by 
the Sub-Committee constituted by the Advisory Committee for Co- 
ordinating Scientific Work to examine and suggest ways and means 
for setting up National Parks and Sanctuaries in India. 

The Sub-Committee met at New Delhi on the 23rd and 24th July 1951. 

1. Preliminary. — (a) It is suggested that the Sub-Committee consider 
this Memorandum para by para and make suitable suggestions to the 
Advisory Committee. 

(b) it is also suggested that the Sub-Committee Members refresh 
their memories by reading through the original pamphlet, J.B.N.H.S., 
Vol. 47, No. 4, August 1948 and the Supplement to it Vol. 48, No. 2 
of April 1949. 

(c) Some of the Members may not possess these. Suggest the 
references may be made available to them on loan from the Office 
concerned: also other references mentioned in this Memorandum. 

2. Legislation — National Parks. — The several National Parks 
Acts enacted in India are not available to me. So far as I know, these 
Acts have not provided for the Board of Trustees system of control 
which has been considered in other countries (U.K. and Kenya) as 
giving the greatest security. 

"Governments and policies change, demands based on economic 
needs or political expediency arise which, though they may be of a 
temporary nature only, it may be difficult for the Government to resist, 
and a Park established by an Ordinance could with moderate ease be 
modified or abolished by another. " . . . " The areas chosen can be 
leased by the Crown (The State) to the Trustees for a period of 999 
years, the Trustees being empowered to carry out their duties in accord- 
ance with the conditions laid down in the Deed of Trust ... lease is 
harder to break (than an Ordinance) and, in our opinion, gives the 
greatest security, which is the goal at which we aim." 

3. J suggest that a National Edifice, designed to last a thousand 
years should have the best possible foundation. Perhaps, in India, 
Trustee System is not necessary. The Law Officers will know. What- 
ever is the more secure may be adopted. 

4. Two Kinds of Parks. — The Sub-Committee will doubtless have 
in mind two kinds of National Parks. No. 1 Wild life purposes only. 
No. 2 Dual purposes, viz., for both wild life and monuments. 

5. Definitions. No. I. — An area dedicated by Statute for all 
time to and for the people for the preservation of the flora and fauna 
of the selected area in all its aspects. No. 2. — "An area dedicated by 
Statute for all time to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic 
objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of 
the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired 
for the enjoyment of future generations." (P. 565. Proceedings and 
Papers, International Technical Conference for the Protection of 
Nature, Lake Success, 22-29, VIIT, 1949.) 

6. Number and Location. — No. 1. Suggest there may be as far as 
possible one in each State and Union.. 

1 



142 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

(a) Assam. — Suggest that the lately Gazetted Tirap Frontier 
National Park be not further proceeded with as regards Tourists. It 
may be tried out as a sanctuary for the species that are now in it, 

As to Frontier National Parks reference may be had to the before- 
mentioned Lake Success Proceedings and Papers. Suggest that at the 
present time it is not expedient to form any National Park or Sanctuary 
having any part of the area contiguous to any of the Frontiers of the 
Republic of India 

(b) Assam. — Suggest possibility of a National Park along the 
Dinapur, Nichuguard, Kohima, Mao, Karong and Tmphal to the 
Logtak Lake of the Manipuf State as suggested by Mr. E. P. Gee, 
see Vol. 49, p. 87. 

(c) Of No. 2 suggest Mount Abu and such area around the Hill 
as may be available for a dual purposes National Park. The Sub- 
Committee will have other places in mind for similar purposes (Mandu, 
Parasnath and others). 

7. Zoological Parks. — These, on the lines of Whipsnade Park in 
England, are suggested as show places attractive to tourists of other 
countries, and for the instruction and enjoyment of the people of cities 
and large towns: Bombay, Calcutta, Allahabad, Jaipur, Delhi, Nagpur, 
Jubbulpur, Indore, Gwalior, Hyderabad, Mysore, Bangalore, Madras 
may be mentioned; there are others also. 

(a) Area of such Zoo Parks may approximate 500 acres or one 
square mile. They will require secure and permanent fencing all round 
the perimeter. 

(b) It is in mind that in these Parks, birds and animals should 
not be confined in cages but afforded the greatest possible liberty — 
carnivora included. For the two articles descriptive of Whipsnade, 
see Vol. 36, p. 378 and Vol. 39, p. 321. 

(c) It is envisaged that these Zoo Parks would become completely 
self-supporting, enhance the wild life prestige of India, and be much 
appreciated by all classes of the people in the several States and Unions. 

(d) Amenities. — For each of these parks there would need to 
be provided a small, well designed township of strictly enclosed and 
limited extent with suitable Hotels, Restaurants, Garages and other 
accommodation for the visitors of all classes; also a Bazaar, Market, 
etc. Rail communication is desirable; otherwise good and sufficient 
approach roads. Near the entrance gates would be motor vehicle 
and cycle-parking places. 

(e) Funds. — In the first instance the Zoo Parks would be financed 
by the governments concerned. 

( f) Water.- Where at all possible sites selected for Zoo Parks 
and Peoples' Parks (see below) should have mnning streams or canals 
passing through or near them. 

8. Peoples' Parks. — (a) Nearly all that is in mind as to these is in 
para 12 of the Wild Life Supplement. 

(b) To that is now added that all these Parks should contain 
sheets of water to attract wildfowl and waders. In New-Zealand, small 
Municipal Parks on the above lines are a great asset to the towns, 
especially in the South Island. 

Establishments for both the above Parks would be arranged by 
the cities and towns with which they are linked. The Staff designations 
might be Park Superintendent, Officer, Assistant, Attendant and the 
uniforms designed accordingly. 



A MEMORANDUM 143 

9. National Parks: Establishments. — Suggest these should neces- 
sarily, be separate from the Forest Department establishments. 

(a) Personnel in all grades may, at the commencement, be obtained 
from the Forest Department by nomination and by selection from among 
applicants from the Forest Department Cadres. 

(b) In some of the grades ex-military men might be employed. 

(c) It is in mind, based on observation in India, Burma, Ceylon 
that guards and watchers had best not be from among neighbouring 
populations. 

(d) Designations. — Suggest Warden, Deputy Warden, Assistant 
Warden, Park Superintendent, Ranger, Guard ; Watcher. Fiie-Watcher, 
Attendant for the several grades. 

(e) Dress: As may be designed. *ln case of ranks below Ranger 
suggest 'National Park' on head-dress with designation on chest. From 
Warden to Ranger inclusive shoulder strap indications of status. 

JO. Training. — As may be arranged, (a) Suggest three Officers may 
be deputed soon as may be, to America, Europe, United Kingdom to 
acquire knowledge of principles — methods, and all useful details regard- 
ing National Parks, game control, conservation and management. 

(b) Suggest these three Officers should possess B.Sc. Degree, have 
-wild life preservation at heart, and. have force of character. 

(c) They would have much to learn, and much would depend 
upon them in regard to success of National Parks and Sanctuaries in 
India. 

{d) lii due course compilation of a Manual would be necessary. 

(e) Salaries. — These would be suggested by the Sub-Committee 
and the Advisory Council and be decided by the governments. They 
might approximate those of the Forest Department in the correspond- 
ing grades. 

11. General Remarks. — Suggest that at the^ present lime there is 
urgency in selecting, demarcating and providing for the lay-out and 
administration of the areas to be devoted to the purpose of Wild Life 
National Parks where such are contemplated. 

12. Selection of Area. — A long-term view, fifty years and more, 
with much forethought and mature consideration is necessary. Every 
aspect has to be weighed and considered; for it can be anticipated that 
within the stated number of years all usable land will be required for 
the ever-advancing claims of agriculture, forestry and other human 
activities. Therefore, so far as can be foreseen, none such should 
now be taken up for a National Wild Life Park. 

13. Suggest the Selection Committee should be composed of 
representatives of all Departments concerned, together with two or 
three co-opted non-official members. 

14. Points to Consider. — (a) The area should comprise natural game 
country having abundant water, food and cover for all the creatures in it. 

(b) Size should be large enough to prevent overcrowding of 
species and permit of overflow into contiguous Reserved Forests Which 
should be on at least three sides of the park. 

(c)' It may be* eventually necessary to have much of the park 
protected by fences. 

(d) The area should contain no human habitations other than 
those required for essential Warden and Park Control Establishments. 

{e) Forest Operations. — There can be no extraction of timber 
and other forest products other than providing essential needs of the 



144 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

park; also no mining, quarrying, or water-supply project other than 
for essential need of the park area. 

(/) Type of Forest should be such as to allow animals being 
seen by visitors — in some parts from the roads and others from elephant- 
back. 

(g) The park should be not too far from considerable areas of 
population. 

(/;) Should be served by roads exising, or to be improved or made, 
and have motorable roads within it for visitors and paths for the riding 
elephants on hire for the visitors. 

(/') Water. — For this a very long view is necessary. There must 
be an ample and perennial supply for all species; and for the park 
establishments and the visitors." Tanks, or sheets of water, or marshes 
are a very great asset. 

{k) Food and Grazing. — Needs of all the creatures have to be 
thought of and provided. In fact, the .vital question of food has to 
be considered in all its aspects and for all seasons of the year. 

(/) Environment. — All animals depend for their existence upon 
suitable environment, and this should be preserved, as near as may 
be, intact. 

(/«) Size of the park has .to vary according to availability of 
land and requirements. 

(//) Natural Salt-licks are essential to every park and are of vital 
importance to the conservation of wild life. Because of their attrac- 
tion to the animals they should be improved if necessary and safeguarded 
from poachers in every possible way. 

15. Lay-out. — (a) There should be a system of broader and nar- 
rower fire-lines and communication paths as obtains in well managed 
Reserved Forests. 

(b) There would be suitably sited Quarters with water-supply, 
by well if necessary, for Guards and Fire-Watchers at outlying parts. 

(c) Telephone communication would be established to connect 
these with the Park H.Q. Establishment Office near the Main Entrance. 
Along some of the paths tree machans for benighted patrolling staff 
may be necessary. 

16. Management. — (a) Basic to all success is jieed for trustworthy 
staff. Wardens have to be trained observers; able to train, discipline, 
and educate their Establishments in all their duties; to inspire them 
with enthusiasm and real pride in the condition of their park and the 
well-being of the creatures under their charge. 

{b) Selection. — From this it is obvious that all members of the 
Staff have to be most carefully selected. They must be keen on the 
work before them; lovers of wild life; of sound health and good physique; 
amenable to discipline; trustworthy, honest and as far as possible 
unrelated to neighbouring population. 

(c) In the upper grades they should be able to read and under- 
stand the wild life literature, which should be provided. 

{d) A Manual would be compiled for their general guidance. 

(e) All Establishments should be well paid, housed and cared 
for at all times and all seasons. 

(/) There should be cordial relations and close co-operation 
between the Establishments of the National Park, the Forest Depart- 
ment, the Police, and Establishments of the Civil Administration in 
all essential grades. 



A MEMORANDUM 145 

17. Forestry. — (a) It may be necessary to de-forest selected patches 
bf jungle to augment grazing. In these, and in jungle valleys, and 
along the wider fire-lines annual grass burning is a necessity; for neglect 
in this allows of excessive growth of bush and thorny scrub which comes 
up with great rapidity, blocks the glades, and through increasing dense- 
ness of vegetation causes migration from the area of species such as 
sambar and spotted deer. 

(b) The narrower fire-lines and the footpaths should be annually 
cleared by hand implements. 

(c) Where exotic fodder plants, such as clover, have been safelj 
introduced in the not-far distant parts of the same tract of country, 
the cultivation of them could be added with advantage to the local 
grazing supplies. Advice of scientists could be obtained. 

(rf) To promote prosperous breeding seasons there has to be 
plenty of grazing and water. Where there are elephants, rhinoceros, 
buffalo, bison their needs have also to be thought of. 

(e) For some of the animals — bears, monkeys, squirrels and 
for birds, fruit-bearing trees and shrubs should be planted. 

(/) Near selected salt-licks there could be suitably constructed 
tree-platforms to enable approved visitors (on payment) enjoy the 
sight of wild animals in a state of natural environment. 

18. Census. — (a) Basic to any management measures is as accurate 
as possible knowledge of the size of the population, and the yearly 
changes in its size. 

{b) To the above end repeated censuses should be the basis of 
intelligent management of game resources. The reduction of stock, 
if necessary, should include the culling of female animals, and of males 
also should that be indicated. 

(c) Habitat improvement through modification of timber and 
grazing arrangement can be made to increase game-carrying capacity. 

19. Carnivora. — It would be necessary to maintain the right 
balance between carnivora and herbivora. 

19. A. Park Management includes encouragement of the deer, 
pig and monkey population to provide food for the larger carnivora 
and so lessen depredations on domestic stock outside the area. Wild 
dogs would have to be destroyed as interfering with food supply of 
tigers and panthers. 

20. Crocodiles. — The'Park Staff would take any measures found 
necessary in respect to these animals. 

21. Elephants. — 'Control as regards these, and all other animals 
so that they do not unduly conflict with the use of land for production 
purposes is the duty of the Park Warden and his Establishments. It 
is the duty of the Warden to keep the population of game and wild 
fauna within reasonable bounds. 

22. Education of Public. — 'Research by scientists, and manage- 
ment by Warden and Staff should be complemented by education of 
the public in general, and in the neighbourhood of the park in particular, 
so that they may support the programme. 

23. Sanctuaries. — Selection of areas to be declared as sanctuaries 
within Reserved Forests has always been decided by the Forest Depart- 
ment, and this excellent arrangement should continue. 

24. Special Sanctuaries. — Conditions governing what may be 
termed 'special sanctuaries' which may be used as show places for 
tourists, and may perhaps in some cases eventually attain the status 

10 5 



146 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

of National Park, are contained in para 19 of Wild Life Supplement. To 
that para should now be added para 14 («) above as to salt-licks. 

Some of the other paragraphs in 14 are also applicable to forma- 
tion of 'special sanctuaries'. 

25. Preservation and Guarding. — It has been remarked in several 
places by others as well as myself that laws, rules and orders in respect 
to guarding the forests and shooting within them are excellent in them- 
selves, but the difficulty lies in enforcement. That applies to both 
inside and outside the forests. 

26. Legislation — Game Act, Bombay State. — In the Bombay 
State at the present time a New Game Act is at the stage of being 
enacted. It is suggested that this Act may be taken by the other States 
and Unions as a model on which to frame their own Acts and Rules. 

I have had something to do with the drafting but have not seen 

the final draft so might have some suggestions to make. 
* * * * 

The-text of the Act, "The Bombay Wild Birds and Wild Animals 
Protection Act, 1951" — together with Statement of Objects and 
Reasons, is at pp. 818-852 of Vol. 49, No. 4 (1949). 

Provision is made in the Act for confiscation of firearms by 
the convicting Court, but not of 'vehicles' as I urged should be 
done in conformity with the Excise Act (see under Poaching). 
Definition of 'animal' is omitted. It might be: — 
" 'animal' means any animal alive or dead whether verte- 
brate or invertebrate or any portion thereof and includes 
a bird, fish or reptile." 
'Vegetation' is not defined: it might be: — 
"vegetation includes any form of vegetable matter alive 
or dead" 
" 'trap' needs definition:— 
'trap' includes any contrivance or device by means of which 
any animal can be captured, injured or killed." 
Schedule I. Vermin. — This is defective in that neither all 
species of Bats nor all Birds of Prey are harmful to the interests 
of man or of wild life conservation; .indeed, some of each of these 
species are directly beneficial to man's interests. 

In the above respects the Bombay Act is not yet, as was hoped 
it would be, wholly satisfactory as a model .to be used as a guide 
to similar Acts in other States and Unions. 

The Rules under the Act are not yet to hand. — R. W. B., 

November 1952. 

27. Trapping and Snaring. — Again it is urged that the time has 

long gone by for Nomadic Tribes and other persons who gain their 

living by trapping and snaring of game birds, antelope, gazelle and other 

creatures to be turned to other pursuits. 

Thousands of people have been deprived of their hereditary occupa- 
tions and turned to other pursuits in the interests of the prohibition 
.campaign. These harmful trappers and snarers could be dealt with 
*in a similar manner — and with good reason, for they are exterminating 
birds and animals which are the inherited asset of the people and the 
State. 

Notices could be issued to all such who are licensed that these 
are terminated from a stated date. Alternative to that is the disappear- 
ance of some species and the eventual extermination of others. 

6 



A MEMORANDUM 147 

28. Poaching. — (a) In two respects the Laws and Rules need impor- 
tant amendment: Poaching through use of the motor vehicle. 

Poaching through use of the electric torch. 

Unless these two forces of destruction are halted, the larger wild 
life of India is doomed to extermination. That is my contention. 

(b) An essential of game preservation is the prevention of the 
' commercialisation ' of game. Much of the poaching done — in South 
India at any rate — is for gain by sale of the meat or other products of 
the animal. 

(c) It is necessary, I submit, that the Laws and Rules be amended 
to provide that in case of conviction, the Court may order confiscation 
of the motor vehicle, cycle, wheeled vehicle, firearm, torch or other 
gear used in the commission of the offence, in addition to any other 
penalty provided by the law. There is ample precedent in the Indian 
Excise Act and Rules; and now there is support from the United 
Kingdom: — 

Editorial, The English Field newspaper, 6th May 1950: 
Salmon poaching penalties. — After nearly two years of delibera- 
tion and taking of evidence the Government's Committee on 
poaching and illegal fishing for salmon and trout in Scotland has 

made its report. 

* * * * 

"The Committee's recommendations for dealing with the 
situation may be briefly summarised as: adequate penalties upon 
conviction; the introduction of licences for the sale of salmon and 
trout; the obligation to mark packages of salmon and trout when 
despatching by post or rail; the forfeiture of all gear including 
motor cars on conviction. There are, of course, other sugges- 
tions for greater efficiency in detail. ~ 

The Tweed (England) has already provision whereby carts for 
transporting the illegal fish are subject to forfeiture. This provi- 
sion, which should include motor cars, quite definitely, ought to be 
made applicable to the whole country. It would be best to make 
the provision compulsory on conviction, and not leave it to the 
discretion of the lower Court" {my italics). 
__ This is good precedent for my proposal that provision needs to 

be made, in India, for the confiscation of motor vehicle in case of a 

conviction for poaching. 

(d) My contention is that the preservation of game animals* 
which are the property of the State and a National Asset, is of at least 
equal importance to the prevention of smuggling of opium, liquor and 
other things penalized under the Excise Act (Recently— 1952-r-in the 
Madras State, in a liquor smuggling case, the order of the Court con- 
fiscating the motor vehicle was upheld on appeal to the High Court), 

(e) It naturally at once jumps to the mind that, from one point 
of view, some of the subordinate staffs entrusted with the enforcement 
of the game laws will joyfully welcome this new idea; while others, 
who are loyal to the necessity of preserving the animals from destruction, 
will acclaim the extra power given for the suppression of offences. 

(/) The new Bombay Act has accepted the idea as to firearms, 
but not as to motor vehicles. Half measures are seldom effective. 

(g)The Sub-Committee may carefully consider all the above 
and make recommendations to the Advisory Committee. 



148 



THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 



(/;) A recent Amendment to the Ceylon Ordinance gives power 
to halt and examine motor vehicles passing along certain roads. Such 
provision might with advantage be adopted in India. 

29. Royalties. — (a) The Sub-Committee may recommend that the 
system of Royalties provided in the Assam Rules should be introduced 
into Reserve Forest Shooting Rules of all States and Unions. 

(b) I can see no objection to this system. Sportsmen who can 
afford the many expenses entailed by shooting big game can be reason 1 
ably asked to make this further contribution towards the expenses 
incurred by the State in conserving the animals for their sport; 

30. Rewards for Carnivore* — Within Reserved Forests there should 
be no rewards for killing tiger or panther, except in case of those which 
have to be proclaimed. Rewards for wild dogs should remain and be 
sufficiently attractive. 

31. Bird Sanctuaries. — (a) In Ceylon there are upwards of 20 bird 
sanctuaries, in India almost none. There are indications that the 
people in rural areas would give good support to bird protection, except 
perhaps where the species is desired for food. 

(b) Bird Sanctuaries are desirable all over the country, and the 
Sub-Committee may so recommend through the Advisory Committee 
to all "States and Unions. 

(c) Wildfowl. — At the Lake Success International Conference for 
the Protection of Nature in August 1949 it was shown that the decreas- 
ing number of migratory duck had become a matter of concern among 
Western nations. 

(d) It was considered that much could be done by prohibiting net- 
ting of wild fowl on lakes and smaller waters, and that every nation should 
be prepared to make the necessary sacrifices towards that end. Some-» 
thing on those lines could be done by the governments and people of Jndia. 

(e) In the Madras State indigenous duck and teal are afforded 
a close season from 1st June to 30th September. The period might be 
from 1st April and apply to all species of wild fowl and water birds. 
Under the guise of netting, both migratory and indigenous birds will 
be taken; also, at present, the people are taking the eggs and fledglings 
of indigenous duck, and that should be stopped. The Sub-Committee 
may recommend as above. 

32. The Great Indian Bustard. — (a) is now a vanishing species 
and will surely be exterminated unless effective measures are taken to 
preserve it for the country. 

(b) The bird lays only one egg, is large and conspicuous, and is 
slaughtered for food by nomadic tribes and others. 

(c) The only remedy is to apply provisions of Act VIII of 1912 
by Notification under Rules provided by the Act and give whole year 
protection. At the same time all District Officers in all States and 
Unions where the bustard is found should be directed to ensure by all 
means in their power that the Notification is obeyed. 

The Sub-Committee may recommend as above to the Advisory 
Committee: — 

»*. (d) The Lesser Florican is exceedingly scarce and needs whole 
year protection. 

33. Close Seasons — 'Game Birds. — (a) The biological conditions of 
bird life strictly govern reproduction. Not only must birds be undis- 
turbed during the breeding season, but equally during the preceding 
phases, and subsequently, until the young are able to fend for themselves. 

8 



A MEMORANDUM 149 

(b) Existing Schedules are all too complicated through attempting 
to give precise close seasons for this, that and the other bird. For 
this reason they are confusing to even educated sportsmen and not 
understandable by many of the ordinary people (Vol. 47, pp. 778-780 
may be seen in this regard). 

(c) Schedules might provide for all game, and some other birds, 
from 15th February to 30th September as a common sense close season. 

34. Outside Reserved Forests. — Paragraphs 27, 31,32,33 refer to 
these areas. 

35. Within Reserved Forests — National Parks and Sanctuaries. — 
(a) Some aspects of wild life in these appear to be in considerable danger. 

(i) "Forests can themselves become a menace to cultivation." 
Deputy Prime Minister, Dehra Dun, 2nd April 1950. 

(ii) "It is vital that the sentiment of the farmer must be raised 
against all animals that destroy his crop. It is only when the farmer 
co-operates with us in destroying wild animals, that we can hope to 
reduce the'great loss incurred," p. 10, Madras Information, June 1950. 

(iii) "The biologists must give lists of harmful and useful birds 
and animals. While the friends of the cultivator should be encouraged 
in the National Parks the enemies must be exterminated. The bio- 
logists should give a finding whether campaigns should be started for 
the destruction of wild boars, porcupines, monkeys, bats and parrots 
who cause enormous damage to crops and gardens. 

Before any such campaigns are started it should be ascertained 
whether harmful repercussions, .upsetting balance of power. . .An action 
which prima facie may appear sensible and desirable may have far-reach- 
ing and most unpleasant and unforeseen consequences 50 years hence." 
Address by M. S. Randhawa, I.C.S., 36th Indian Science Congress, 
Allahabad, 6-4-1949, p. 4 of reprint in this Volume. 

(b) It is suggested the Sub-Committee may read all of 
Mr. Randhawa's Address and bear it in mind; also the above (i), (ii), 
(iii) when making recommendations to the Advisory Committee. 

36. National Parks and Sanctuaries. — It seems that many people 
have the idea that once these are in being the game in the rest of the 
country can go, and the sooner the better. 

As regards game birds it is a very wrong idea. Even now, part- 
ridges and junglefowl are fast disappearing, and all the game birds are 
in need of protection. 

It is possible that, at certain seasons, partridges and other game 
birds may eat grain if given a chance. But it may be regarded as certain 
that the damage done to crops is small, and is balanced by the good 
they do by destroying insect pests and seeds of harmful weeds. Part- 
ridges in particular are almost wholly beneficial, and he who would 
try to make out a case against them would be an ignorant man. 

The Sub-Committee may keep in mind that much as will be the 
good resulting from welf cared for and well guarded National Parks 
and Sanctuaries, there is need- for game preservation throughout the 
rest of the country [see Vol. 48, No. 4, p. 293, para 13 (iii)]. 

37. Funds for Wild Life. — (a) The Sub-Committee may see the List 
at p. 617, Vol. 47, No. 4, August 1948 and consider that revenue should ' 
aid the source from which derived, and make suitable recommendations. 

(b) In France there is a Special Contribution towards game 
conservation automatically levied at same time as licence fees. This 
is earmarked and cannot be used for any other purpose. 



150 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

It is suggested this logical item may be added as item 18 of the 
List and apply to items 4, 6, 7. 

38. Obiter Dicta.— The following are taken from various papers 
contributed by experts to the International Congress, Lake Success, 
August 1949 and presented as useful to keep in mind. 

(a) "Game" should include Mammals, Birds, Reptiles. 

" Animal" means any vertebrate animal other than a domestic 
animal. 

(b) The management of wild life resources both animals and 
birds, can only be established on a scientific basis. 

(c) Any wild animal population must not only be undisturbed 
during its breeding season but equally during the preceding phases. 

(d) In respect to all projects and measures concerning wild life 
there should be a wholly accurate background of scientific knowledge 
and research. 

(e) Conservation and Control nust be combined into a common 
policy. There should be a balanced picture of control, as well as con- 
servation; that is, conservation means preservation plus control. 

(/) Conservation implies the preservation in perpetuity of a 
reasonable quantity of game and wild fauna on account of their educa- 
tional, scientific, economic, • recreational and aesthetic value. "An 
important principle of conservation is the utilization of natural resources 
for the benefit of mankind" (Hubback). 

"Conservation means the management of plant and animal 

life" (D, E. Wade, p. 33, I.U.P.N. Proceedings and Papers, Lake 

Success Conference). 

(g) Control implies the need, which is growing fast, as human 

population increases, to keep the population of game and wild fauna 

within reasonable bounds, so that the animals do not unduly conflict 

with the use of land for production purposes. 

(h) Game Control may be defined as the sum total of the measures 

that must be taken in the interests of man's crop lands, cattle, etc. 

(/) Game Control has a hundred aspects and a thousand facets; 

on its successful prosecution depends the survival of much of the larger 

indigenous fauna of any country, and of the game also. 

(k) Game Control needs exact knowledge and experience and 
cannot be left to casual effort. 

(/) Game Conservation means the management of game in the 
-interests of the animals and the people using the land. And there are 
the troubles from the upset of the balance of nature. 

(m) Game Preservation means the shielding of game from man 
and his instinct to kill. 

(«) Once disregard of the law is allowed to start, there is no 
stopping it. 

(o) There should be no kind of admission that a man may hunt 
to provide himself and his dependents with food. 

(p) Game Reserves and other areas which cannot be properly 
administered become the happy hunting ground of poachers. 

(q) National Parks, Sanctuaries, Reserves must be adequately 
guarded. 

" 'Adequate' means a staff, well-trained, loyal, trustworthy 
and having enthusiasm and real pride in the well-being of the flora 
and fauna under their charge" (Keith Caldwell) ('clarification' 
of that is a Wild Life Department, or similar organization within 
the Forest Department). 

10 



A MEMORANDUM 151 

39. International Forestry Conference, Mysore, April 1949. 
The closing Resolution: — 

"It is recommended that forests be zoned into Strict Natural 
Reserves, National Parks and Intermediate Areas, and a system of 
Sanctuaries, close seasons and rest periods within open seasons, and 
rest periods with open seasons be enforced, 

"Effective steps should be taken to check unlicensed and un- 
restricted forms of killing and capture, and that protective measures 
be adopted for the preservation of threatened species by declaring them 
to be partially or absolutely protected, and a rigorous control and 
prevention of the sale and export of both live animals and skins, and, 
if necessary, by a complete embargo." 

40. Close Season for Big Game. — In a Note published in Vol. 39, 
No. 3, p. 621, "Close Seasons for Big Game— Are they beneficial"?" 
Colonel R. C. Morris states the various breeding seasons and shows 
that, in the majority of cases, the protection of a close season is supposed 
to afford is not, in fact, beneficial to the animals. 

The argument is: — 

"In view of the fact that during the close season a very large 

number of animals are slaughtered by poachers who cannot then be 

disturbed by sportsmen in the jungles, consider that a general close 

season in respect of big game should be abolished in South India." 

I am in full agreement with that. The same argument would apply 
all over India. So far as law-abiding sportsmen are concerned no 
close season is necessary, and what he may, or may not shoot at is 
entered on his licence.- 

41. Lands — Multi-Purpose Projects. — Apart from the Reserved 
Forests, National Parks and Sanctuaries now in existence or to be 
established in the future there are, in many parts of India, lands "which 
have been or will be taken up by Governments in connexion with water- 
control projects, irrigation works and canals. 

All these are capable of more or less afforestation and wild life 
development. There will be in the current records of the Department 
of Scientific Research representations by the Director of the Zoological 
Survey of India in this respect, and no doubt they are being considered 
by the Advisory Committee. 

42. It is only the backward state of Indian Fisheries and the 
ineffective methods of fishing which have so far saved the river fisheries 
of India from utter ruin. 

I will not trouble the Sub-Committee with all that could be said 
regarding this aspect of wild life preservation; the river fisheries of 
India are now as they were in days of Dr. Day and H. S. Thomas, and 
growing worse. Through all these years there has been, as in case of 
animals and birds, failure to enforce the laws and rules. ' 

Harmful effects of faulty fish-ladders have been stated by fisheries 
experts in the pages of the Journal of the Bombay Natural History 
Society. It would appear that up to now no ladder has been designed 
that is suitable to the weir and dam constructions of the rivers of India. 
Probably, more effective than any ladder .would be some provision 
for free exchange offish population above and below the dam by means 
of a suitably aligned outlet from the Upper waters, as at Mettur. 

The Bombay Act of 1951 prohibits only the poisoning of fish, for 
this should be substituted: — "taking of fish through poison, dynamite 
or other explosive." 

U 



INDEX 



Page 

1. Preliminary 141 

2. Legislation — National 

Parks 141 

3. Legislation — National 

Parks 141 

4. Two Kinds of Parks 141 

5. Definition of No. 1. 141 
Definition of No. 2. 141 

6. Number and Location 

of Parks 141 

(a) Assam; (b) Mount 

Abu, etc 142 

7.* Zoological Parks 142 

8. Peoples' Parks 142 

9. National Parks 143 

10. National Parks, Train- 

ing, etc 143 

11. General Remarks 143 

12. Selection of Area .... 143 

13. Selection Committee.. 143 

14. Points to Consider .... 143 

15. Lay-out 144 

16. Management 144 

17. Forestry 145 

18. Census 145 

19. Carnivora ' 145 

19 A. Carnivora Park 

Management 145 

20. Crocodiles 145 

21. Elephants 145 

22. Education of Public. 145 

23. Sanctuaries: Area Selec- 

tion 145 



24. 

25. 

26. 

27. 
28. 



29. 
30. 
31. 

32. 



33. 

34. 
35. 
36. 

37. 
38. 
39. 

40. 
41. 

42. 



Page 

Special Sanctuaries .... 145 
Preservation and 

Guarding 146 

Legislation — Game Act, 

Bombay 146 

Trapping and Snaring . 146 

Poaching 147 

Motor Vehicles & Elec- 
tric Light 147 

Royalties 148 

Rewards — Carnivora . . 148 
Bird Sanctuaries: Wild- 
fowl 148 

The Great Indian Bus- 
tard 148 

The Lesser Florican .... 148 
Close Seasons — Game 

Birds 148 

Outside the Forests ... 149 

Within Reserved Forests 149 
National Parks and 

Sanctuaries 149 

Funds for Wild Life ... ' 149 

Obiter Dicta 150 

International Forestry 

Conference 151 

Close Season — Big Gam e 151 
Lands — Multi-Purpose 

Projects 151 

Fisheries — Inland 151 



12 



EDITORIALS: THE JOURNAL OF THE BOMBAY 
NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 

7. (ii) GAME PRESERVATION IN INDIA 

By The Edi-tors 

Game Preservation wherever it may be undertaken embodies the 
same principle — the principle that, in order to afford game animals 
that peace and protection which will enable them to live and reproduce 
their kind without damage to man, man should only be allowed to 
damege them under certain rules and should be restricted from ruthless 
destruction. How is this principle applied in India ? 

Let us take first the factors which adversely affect the existence 
of game and then consider the remedies orlack of remedies. 

The prime factor adversely affecting the existence of game is Man. 
Man affects the existence of game in two ways; firstly as a settler, by 
clearing the forest and waste lands and driving the game away from 
its natural habitat; secondly as a destroyer, by protecting his own 
preserves from intrusion yet pursuing animals life within the fastnesses 
of its retreat. Disease is a second adverse factor to be reckoned with- 
rinderpest has accounted for a large number of bison and buffalo in 
Peninsular India, while foot and mouth disease has in recent years 
seriously affected game animals in Kashmir and the Himalayan ranges. 
A third adverse factor might be said to be the killing of game by pre- 
datory animals, yet this factor we might set down as a natural check 
on over-increase, and unless the balance of nature has been upset by 
extraneous causes its effect on game as a whole is not considerable. 
The remedy against man would appear to be obvious, namely, the provi- 
sion of extensive areas of absolute wilderness affording harbourage 
to wild life, and so long as there are refuges safeguarded by their very 
nature against usurpation by man so long will wild life thrive and main- 
tain its existence, provided there is no epidemic disease. Jn India the 
possession of such areas has been one of the main factors tending to 
the protection of its wild fauna and there should be little danger, for 
the present, of any of the existing species being exterminated. 

Viewed as a whole, therefore, the present condition of game in 
India would appear decidedly good — but for how long will this status 
be maintained? In some parts of the country, as in the Central Pro- 
vinces, there has already been serious depletion and in other areas there 
is an almost complete disappearance of game. , 

In making a plea for the protection of the wild fauna of the country 
we must urge that apart from the purely sympathetic motives which 
should impel man to permit to lesser creatures the right of existence 
there are other, perhaps less worthy and more material, thoughts and 
motives which are worth considering. These reasons are put forth on the 
assumption of course that animal life is worth preserving somewhere. 
From the scientific standpoint there are innumerable investigations 
—anatomical, physiological, ecological, geographic, taxonomic and 
evolutionary, which can only be made from the study of animal life 
Biology has already produced many conceptions of practical and 
educational value. The role of the parasite, the predator, the scavenger 

1 



154 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

in the economic web of life has, besides its purely educative significance, 
a not wholly useless application to social relations. 

And what about the purely economic aspect? Even predatory 
animals have a distinct value as a controlling influence against over- 
population by species whose unrestricted increase would adversely 
affect the interests of man. Again there is the utilization • for man's 
benefit of animal products, such as furs, hides and horns, which in 
themselves present a valuable economic asset and are in themselves 
a plea for the conservation of the sources of supply. Have these 
economic possibilities been exhausted ? A few years ago Insulin, that 
priceless boon to the diabetic, was discovered in the liver of a shark. 
Who knows what animal products yet remain to be discovered which 
will be of priceless value to man ? 

The principle of conservation being admitted, what are the methods 
to be employed ? The principle is the same in every country, the methods 
to be employed must vary in every country and will probably vary in 
different parts of the same country. 

Let us consider some of the different methods .of conservation in 
vogue in different parts of India. 

In the United Provinces shooting rules close and open shooting 
blocks for alternate fortnights. This system provides and ensures 
fortnightly periods of constantly recurring rest. In the Terai type 
of jungles, where shooting blocks are small and game can be very 
thoroughly disturbed by a line of elephants beating them day after day, 
the system is an absolute necessity. 

In the Central Provinces the forests are parcelled out into shooting 
blocks usually of a large size. One block, usually a central one, being 
reserved as a Sanctuary; this, coupled with the extensive size of the 
blocks, secures game from undue disturbance. There is here, and in 
other parts of India also, a strict limit to the kind and number of animals 
which may be shot in a given block, and, in addition, an individual 
limit is imposed on all sportsmen, whether exempted from permits or 
not. 

In Southern India the game laws are not applicable to the various 
Provinces as a whole and in certain areas no game laws exist. The 
Nilgiri Districts and those parts of Coimbatore and Malabar which 
are so effectively controlled by the Nilgiri Game Association are the 
only areas with special laws excepting the areas known as Reserved 
Forests where the number of animals that may be shot is controlled by 
licence. 

The position as regards game in Assam is simple; here the game 
areas are divided into waste lands, reserve forests and hill forests. The 
immense areas of waste land which existed at one time are now being 
rapidly cultivated by immigrant settlers or used as grazing lands by 
an invasion of buffalo-keeping Nepalese, so that game in these lands is 
rapidly losing ground. In reserve forests shooting is controlled by 
licence. For the better protection of rhinos, large areas of grass and 
swamp land have been included in these reserves and treated as sanctu- 
aries. In the hill forest areas conditions are steadily approaching those 
obtaining in waste lands where an increasing human population is 
gradually driving game from its quondam preserves. Whilst game in 
Assam will be less and less exempt from molestation as cultivation 
approaches forest boundaries, it must be admitted that there is little 
danger of game in Assam becoming extinct for a great many years so 

3 



GAME PRESERVATION IN INDIA 155 

long as extensive forests continue to exist and to provide safe harbourage 
to game. 

The conditions prevailing in Assam may be applied to India as a 
whole. On broad principles land may be classified in three main 
zones — urban areas, agricultural areas, and forest and waste areas. 
As far as animal life is concerned we cannot expect its preservation 
in urban lands. Cultivated areas with their domestic animals and 
crops provide at once an opportunity for a conflict between man's 
interests and those of the wild species, and in such land the plea for 
protection cannot carry weight. We come finally to forest areas and 
waste lands where, as shown, excellent laws suited to local conditions 
have been framed for the protection of wild life yet nevertheless game 
is decreasing where once it abounded. 

Existing game laws are excellent in .themselves but it is in their 
efficient application that the trouble arises. As far as the agency of 
man is concerned there is no mystery attached to the causes of trouble. 
Firstly, while the licence-holder is restricted by the terms of his licence 
from doing undue damage, the poacher is affected by no law. He 
slaughters indiscriminately everything that he sets his eyes upon, 
regardless of sex, age, or season, he sits over salt-licks and water holes, 
indulges in night shooting and does all that he should not do. Secondly, 
emphasis must be laid on the great increase in recent years in the number 
of gun licences issued which increase is producing, and will continue 
increasingly^ to produce, its inevitable effect on game in forest areas 
and lands immediately adjoining. Thirdly, there is a mass of un- 
licensed guns carefully concealed but constantly used, and there is also 
the loaning of firearms by accommodating licensees to friends and 
retainers, and finally there are the professional trappers arid gangs of 
men with dogs who slay and devour all that falls before them. Those 
in control of forest areas cannot be altogether exonerated for the in- 
effective application of the rules. Conservators of Forests and Divi- 
sional Forest Officers are not necessarily interested in game preserva- 
tion, and in addition there often exists the clash of interests between 
the sylviculturist and the game protector, for game can do considerable 
damage to young teak and other valuable forest timbers. 

If the game in Reserved Forests and Sanctuaries is to be protected 
a more rigid application of the laws is necessary— the stimulus for which 
might be obtained by an executive order from above. Much might 
also be effected by co-operation with the police since every constable 
is in law 'a forest officer'. A more liberal system of rewards for the 
detection of forest crime, particularly of poaching, is another point 
worthy of consideration. Rewards are far too rarely given and very 
rarely indeed in poaching cases, the detection and capture ofi a poacher 
who is armed often involves danger and there is no class of forest crime 
the detection of which merits to a greater extent the granting of reward. 
It is evident that much of the poaching that is done in forest preserves 
is carried on for profit. It is significant that the decrease of game in 
certain areas has corresponded with the increase in the export of skins, 
principally of bison, buffalo, sambar, etc. Bison, chital and sambar 
hides are openly sold in the bazaars and there is nothing to prevent • 
these sales. If the poacher is deprived of his market the temptation 
to kill would be largely removed and it would appear that there could 
be no possible objection to a general law throughout India forbidding 
the sale by unauthorized persons of any portion of big game animals — ■■ 

3 



156 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

whether hides, horns or meat and with adequate penalties annexed 
for those who break the law. 

As to the question of gun licences, it may be assumed that in 99 
cases out of 100 they are not obtained for the purpose for which they 
are granted as it is the merest fiction to suppose that the guns are used 
exclusively for crop protection, which is the only legitimate purpose 
to which they can be put. While the reduction in the number of licences 
may perhaps be a difficult matter, it would seem a perfectly fair propo- 
sition to have all the 'crop protection' guns called in during the hot 
weather when there are absolutely no crops to protect. It is during 
the hot weather, when water is so scarce and the jungles are so thin, 
that 80 per cent, of the damage is done. It has been found useful, 
where gun licences are required solely for crop protection purposes, 
to have several inches of barrel removed. Lastly a suitable penalty 
might be imposed for the use of a gun except by the licence-holder in 
person. 

The formation of suitable game sanctuaries has been proposed 
by many as a solution. Game sanctuaries to be effective must 
fulfil the following conditions: They must be fairly large, must possess 
a perennial water-supply and must as far as possible be protected 
against fire and, what is most important, they must have a special staff 
to look after them. Each preserve will require well-paid watchers 
with a game warden over them — the game warden should be well paid 
and given considerable preventive powers. The case for the game 
warden and his special staff is that many forest officials have neither 
the time nor perhaps the inclination to apply themselves especially to 
game preservation. The exploitation of timber and forest produce 
is annually increasing and forest officers find it more and more diffi- 
cult to get away from work which brings revenue so as to be able to 
pay sufficient attention to a question which in this material age is consi- 
dered to be one of. subsidiary importance. A game warden requires 
special qualifications and besides being a sportsman must also be a 
naturalist with a knowledge of the ways and habits of the animals 
he is called upon to protect. The objection to the game sanctuary 
is that it is expensive both as regards the extent of forest land which 
must be sacrificed for the purpose and as regards its maintenance by 
a well-paid warden and an unbribable staff. Besides it may be main- 
tained that a long period of protection in the same area is probably 
a mistake. Nullahs maintained as sanctuaries in Kashmir for consi- 
derable periods were found, on reopening them to shooting, to be 
almost empty of game. Lastly an 'unbribable staff of subordinate 
game watchers' would be difficult to procure. The Nilgiri Game 
Association which, at considerable expense, maintained a staff of seven- 
teen game watchers, abolished the system as these were found to be 
quite useless and their duties have now been taken over by ordinary 
forest guards. 

The whole question of game protection and the tightening up of 
the laws affecting it is in the main a question of money. The forma- 
tion of a special game protection fund in the various Provinces might 
be well worth considering. The fee for shooting in the splendid jungles 
of the Central Provinces is Rs. 9 per mensem. This paltry sum is to 
cover the cost of a special guard who often acts as a sort of orderly 
to the permit-holder. Game protection is of interest to the sports- 
man and it is right that he should contribute towards it. Shooting 

4 



GAME PRESERVATION IN INDIA 157 

blbcks might be classified as (a) the very highest class, (b) good blocks, 
(c) poor blocks. The permit-holder might be charged Rs. 1-8-0 per 
day for (a), Re. 1 for (b), and annas 8 for (c). When one considers 
what people have to pay for sport in other parts of the world, this is 
not a Suggestion that would be seriously opposed even in India where 
only the poor reside. In addition a special charge might be made for 
shooting bison, buffalo and the more sought-after species of game. 
The money raised by these means should be earmarked for game pro- 
tection. The formation of such a fund might be sanctioned by the 
Local Governments and applied for the purpose of supplementing 
rewards to forest guards, to paying informers, poisoning wild dogs 
and vermin, killing crocodiles in jungle pools, improving scanty water- 
supplies, etc., in fact all measures which might be helpful to game. It 
would be a simple matter to calculate by a perusal of the permits issued 
in past years what sum the proposed scale of fees would bring in in a 
given district. Whilst the measures proposed above might not main- 
tain wild life at its .present level they would, we consider, have a bene- 
ficial effect and help to retard the process of depletion now going on. 



MISCELLANEOUS CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES TO THE 

JOURNAL OF THE BOMBAY NATURAL 

HISTORY SOCIETY 

8. (e) JUNGLE MEMORIES 

By Major (Lt.-Col.) E. G. Phythian-Adams, O.B.E., 
F.Z.S., LA. {Retd.) 

Extract from concluding pages of the Series, 'Jungle Memories'. Contri- 
buted by Lieut.-Col. E. G. Phythian-Adams, O.B.E., F.Z.S., LA. 
(Retd.), to the 'Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society', 
Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 466-468, April 1952. 

Conservation 

Before bringing these Memories to a close, it may be worthwhile 
to look back and consider the changes in sporting ethics during ■ 
the past 50 years, and their resultant effect on wild life. When I 
landed in India the standard of sportsmanship was very high indeed, 
and approximated very nearly to what the Greek writer Arrian wrote 
1800 years ago regarding the people of Britain, who he said 'hunt for 
the beauty of the sport, and consider the killing of the prey to be of minor 
importance'. Gone, it seemed for ever, were the days of the butchers 
of the 70's and 80's of last century, whose bloody exploits are so un- 
blushingly detailed in certain old shikar books. The game laws too 
had been tightened up and were rigidly enforced. In fact it seemed 
reasonable to assume, without undue complacency, that the future of 
wild life in India was secure for many years to come. 

Then came the two World Wars and their aftermath — the 
disappearance of many who could have passed on the traditions they 
had inherited, and a general disrespect for law and order. The increas- 
ing use of motor cars too, enabled an ever-increasing number to indulge 
in a new form of shikar, and to slaughter animals with a minimum 
of exertion or risk, subordinating all ideas of sportsmanship to the 
desire to kill. With India's attainment of independence, matters 
went from bad to worse. 'There was undoubtedly, a widespread belief 
(which persists even to-day) that the game laws in force till then were 
introduced by alien rulers to serve their own ends, and might now 
be safely disregarded. Their real purpose, to conserve wild life, 
was, and still is, completely ignored. Gun clubs were formed in many 
places, estensibly for crop protection, but mostly for the high profit 
to be derived from the sale of meat. With few exceptions everyone.- 
possessing a firearm uses it for the indiscriminate destruction of game, 
regardless of sex or season. Persons without the least experience of 
shikar fire with buckshot at all kinds of animals, of which many in 
Consequence escape to die a lingering death. If a dangerous animal 
is not killed on the spot, no attempt is made to follow it up, with the 
result that it becomes a source of danger to some unfortunate villager. 
The game laws are not adequately enforced, since forest subordinates 
ate in many cases afraid to report poachers lest their families suffer 
reprisals, or else the social status of the offender ensures his immunity. 
These things are matters of common knowledge, and it is no exagge- 
ration to say that if the slaughter taking place all over the country 

I 



JUNGLE MEMORIES 159 

continues at the present rate, game animals in India will soon become 
practically extinct in all but the most inaccessible areas. 

They are having much the same trouble in the U.S.A., and the 
solution there is a nation-wide conservation pledge: ' I give my pledge 
as an American citizen to save and faithfully to defend from waste 
the natural resources of my country; its soil and minerals, its forests, 
waters and wild life'. This pledge, with a badge, and the slogan 'The 
Game Law Violator is a Thief ', is given the widest possible publicity 
through the press and in other ways. It is being taken by millions of 
adults, and by school children also, and there is no doubt, that it is 
bringing home to all classes the importance of conservation. ]f that 
can be done in the great democracy of the West, why should it not 
succeed in India also ? 

Unfortunately it is only too obvious that in this country to date, 
in spite of much propaganda, the real object of conservation is very 
far from being understood. 

Wild life is a very real national asset, and no one can object to 
all reasonable steps being taken for its preservation. 



APPENDIX "A" 

Summary of Speeches Made at Mysore on the Occasion of the 

First Meeting of the Central Board for Wild Life from 

25th November to 1st December 1952 

//; his Inaugural Address on Tuesday, the 25th November 1952, 
His Highness the Maharaja of Mysore and Chairman of the Board, 
expressed the genuine pleasure with which the Members of the Board 
are welcomed by him to Mysore, and the diffidence with which he 
accepted to be Chairman of the Committee of the Central Board for 
Wild Life set up by the Government of* India*. He observed how 
fortunate it is that we have as Vice-Chairmen Shri K. S. Dharma- 
kumarsinghji of Bhavnagar and Shri M. D. Chaturvedi, the Inspector- 
General of Forests, and remarked upon the strength and inspiration 
afforded by the distinguished body of Naturalists, Conservationists 
and experienced officers of the various Forest Departments of the 
different States of India who are serving on the Board. 

In the days of yore, he said, it was the Kings, the Nawabs and the 
Rulers of this country who were responsible for maintaining large 
tracts of forests where many of the wild animals were preserved for 
their hunting and shooting expeditions. With the unfurling of the 
scroll of Indian history these conditions have changed, he remarked, 
and the protection once afforded to these animals was no longef 
available to them with the result that many of the finest of these game 
animals have nearly reached the verge of extinction — some have 
already become extinct; but now, he said, thanks to the foresight and 
forethought of the Government of India it is once more possible to 
look forward to and welcome the rehabilitation of some of our 
vanishing species of game. 

Passing in review the many and varied problems before the Board 
he referred to the Heed envisaged by the government to preserve some 
species while at the same time controlling others which are harmful 
to man's interests, he mentioned the several functions of the Board 
flow assembled for its First Session. Remarking upon the aims and 
objects of the International Union for the Protection of Nature he 
Stressed the duty owed by each generation to the next in respect of 
the Preservation of Nature. 'It must never be forgotten' he urged, 
'that these gifts of Nature, once destroyed can never be restored by 
all the ingenuity of the present age'. Quoting the dicta of Mr. Munshi, 
the former Food Minister and now Governor of Uttar Pradesh, he 
reminded the people that unless we become nature-protection minded 
India will not have a chance of survival. 

The basis of all animal life is plant life, he said, and the link 
between plants and animals is more strong and intimate than is ordi- 
narily imagined, for plant cover greatly influences the natural animal 
population. Nature, and the conservation of natural resources he 
remarked, will have necessarily to be based on a long range policy. 

' We have to bestir ourselves before it is too late to establish 

National Parks and National Reserves as a national trust under statutory 
authority not subject to the casualties of party politics and depart- 
mental whims.' He pointed out that our wild life assets are vanishing 
and we require educative propaganda, urgent legislation and swift 

1 



161 

executive action to save the situation. 'It is the duty of the Central 
and States Governments to take action in this regard.' 

Proceeding further, His Highness said that the need has been felt 
and met with varying degrees of efficiency in many parts of the world, 
and growing awareness of necessity for the protection of nature is felt 
in many lands; while in India the problem is no less urgent, and 
intelligent planning in this respect has become necessary. He greatly 
stressed the urgent need to deal with the erosion problem. 

It is tragic, he remarked, that two species of rhinoceros have 
vanished from the soil of India within the memory of many people 
now living, and the Brow-Antlered Deer of Manipur has been totally 
exterminated within the past five years. The lion has to be more 
rigidly protected within its last retreat in the Gir Forest of Junagadh, 
add the Great Indian One-Horned Rhinoceros is in need of most 
careful conservation. His Highness observed that certain species had 
diminished within his own recollection, and the Nilgai is becoming 
extinct over most of South India. There is need, he remarked, for 
the Forest Department to give to wild life the degree of scientific atten- 
tion it deserves. He strongly deprecated the method of irrational 
grants of lands so as to form little pockets inside forest areas when 
equal extents of land could well have been made available on the out- 
skirts of the forests. ' An indiscriminate cultivation in the interior of 
the forests is calculated to destroy the flora and fauna and to bring 
about a needless interference with Nature's Reserves.' 

Dealing with National Parks and Sanctuaries His Highness observed 
that certain areas by reason of the wealth of surviving floral and fauna! 
life deserve to be statutorily protected on a National Park footing against 
man's exploitation. Also, he observed, 'there are other areas situated 
not far from the cities which could be developed into People's Parks 
like the one found near Bombay or in Nairobi National Park in Kenya, 
Museums and natural history laboratories could be established in these 
centres for the instruction and interest of the people.' He also remarked 
upon the several kinds of sanctuaries, and that the rhino and wild 
buffalo in Assam had been saved by these means. 

Nature Reserves, he said, besides playing the part of a storehouse 
providing raw material for the laboratory also form an ideal observatory 
for the naturalist, and the economic advantages of protecting Nature 
are now recognized by the whole world. The manifold discoveries 
of science, in agricultural economy, for example, declare most urgently 
the danger of thoughtlessly destroying vegetable life. As animal life 
depends upon plant life the. one cannot exist without the other so the 
protection of wild life imperatively demands protection of natural life 
and surroundings. ' It is up to the members of the Board to suggest the 
most efficient and effective means by which a glamorous but now fast 
disappearing fauna may be saved before it is too late.' 

It is clear, His Highness remarked, that a good amount of planning 
and scientific attention is necessary in setting up parks, reserves and 
sanctuaries. The area has to be selected, the conflicting claims of man 
and wild life have to be reconciled, scientific care of wild life has to 
be taken, proper personnel found, reasonable laws made and arrangements 
made to give facilities to visitors to observe wild life. He pointed out the 
several benefits that would arise and that there would be the necessary 
income from various indicated sources. His Highness made mention 
of the way the problem was treated in Ancient India and cited 

11 2 



162 fHB PRESERVATION OF wIlD LIFE IN INDIA 

significant passages in Kautilya's Artha Sastra and other ancient records. 
Concluding, His Highness made an appeal on behalf of the Board to 
the Government and the Committees of the States to extend their utmost 
co-operation and help to the Central Board in the discharge of the 
responsible duties entrusted to them; and closed with recital of the 
Vedic Hymn of Hope the last stanza of which has the striking lines: — 
"Rise up. Living life has come to us. The dark 
has passed away. The light comes. She has 
abandoned the path for the Sun to go. We have 
come where men prolong their life." 
The Inspector-General of Forests in his Address to the Meeting 
at the Final Session remarked upon the strange paradox that the man 
who kills the animals for sport is he who loved them most, and as 
support to this mentioned the services of a veteran sportsman about 
to leave India and took the opportunity to express gratitude for all 
he had done in furthering the cause so dear to our hearts. Referring 
to His Highness's Inaugural Speech he observed that there is no 
recommendation of the Board which had not been carefully examined 
by him. On behalf of the Board and the more spectacular of the birds 
and animals and of other wild life in need of protection he expressed 
gratitude to Dr. Deshmukh, the Union Minister of Agriculture, for 
the signal honour done by his presence and support on this occasion. 
As a token of their affection, he remarked, the bisons of Bandipur 
have sent one of their stockings mounled as a table-lamp which* His 
Highness, our Chairman, has directed should be presented to the* 
Minister with the hope that it would act as a beacon-light for the cause 
so dear to us. On behalf of the Members of the Board he expressed 
grateful appreciation for the unstinted hospitality and unbounded genero- 
sity of His Highness the Maharaja and the Rajpramukh of Mysore'. 
Also the thanks of all to the Chief Conservator of Forests in Mysore and 
his Staff for the splendid arrangements made for holding the Session. 

Finally, as Secretary to the Board at this Meeting he expressed 
gratitude to all for the earnestness which they had brought to bear ori 
the tasks assigned to them. Striking a note of warning he sai'd that 
organisations of this nature are apt to lapse into inanition due to sheer 
lack of interest and be killed by a plethora of rules, regulations and bye- 
laws. Conveying the advice of Dr. Deshmukh to cut clean through 
red-tape and have only one rule of business, viz., business first: he 
expressed the hope that this Board, under the able guidance of His 
Highness would grow from strength to strength. 

Speech of Dr. Punjab Rao Deshmukh, the Union Minister of Agri- 
culture, delivered at the Plenary Session of the Central Board of Wild 
Life at Mysore, on the 1st December 1952. 

The Minister remarked upon the precious heritage of wild life' 
which should be looked upon as a sacred trust to be handed over to 
' generations to come; and referred to the far-reaching recomtnenda-- 
tions made by the Committee appointed in 1935, the implementation' 
of" which had suffered from the handicaps of the strains and" stresses 
of World War II and its aftermath. In 1949, he said, the threads were 
again "picked up and a Sub-Committee appointed by the Government 
of" India to examine in particular the question of the Constitution of 
National Parks and Sanctuaries. 

The Sub-Committee felt that the interest of wild life can be best 
served by setting up a permanent organization at the Centre whose 



APPENDIX "A" 163 

fchief function would be to keep a constant vigil on the management of 
wild life throughout the country. The outcome of that is the present 
Board and its deliberations in these historic environments of Mysore. 

He earnestly hoped that it will be possible for the States to consti- 
tute standing Wild Life Committees on the lines of the Constitution of 
the Central Board to deal with the day-to-day problems which arise, 
in the management of wild life. Giving praise to the Chairman of 
the Board who is the Maharaja of Mysore he remarked that his 
exhaustive treatment of the subject had left little for him to add. It is 
comforting, he remarked, that rightful claims of the agriculturist for 
protection from the depredations of predators have been given due 
recognition in their deliberations. 'Attention needs to be focussed only 
on the preservation of wild life which does not come in conflict with 
man and his pursuits. Our efforts should be directed in maintaining 
a balance not only between the vegetable and animal kingdom but 
among the animals themselves. 'The recommendations of the Board' he 
Observed, 'reflect the earnest efforts brought to bear upon the problems, 
and he noted with gratification the stress laid upon the urgent need to 
provide protection to some of our animals whom our improvidence 
has driven to the verge of extinction. He was glad to note that the 
Board has drawn special attention to the need for nursing the lion 
population in another centre besides the Gir Forest, and is in com- 
plete agreement with the view expressed by the Board that we are 
running an incalculable risk (in that respect) in placing all our eggs in 
One basket. 

Pointing out that the task of preserving wild life over so large a 
country is attended with serious difficulties, he said it would not do 
to rely only on legislation but is of utmost importance to arouse the 
public conscience against the insensate killing of our beautiful birds 
and animals who cannot defend themselves against modern weapons 
of destruction and the insatiable greed of man. We must create an 
atmosphere which will convert a poacher into a preacher for the pre- 
servation of wild life, and inculcate a spirit of sportsmanship into our 
people. 

Concluding, the Minister expressed a feeling of gratitude to His 
Highness the Maharaja and the Rajpramukh of Mysore for having 
given his valuable time to the problems before the Board, and added 
that the future of wild life is safe in his hands. He also thanked all 
the Gentlemen of the Board for the service rendered to this noble cause. 

Speech of His Highness the Maharaja of Mysore at the Final Session 
'Of the Central Board for Wild Life, on the 1st December 1952. 

Addressing the Union Minister of Agriculture and Mr. Hanu- 
rnanthaiya, the Chief Minister for Mysore State and Members of the 
Central Board, His Highness expressed his appreciation and gratitude 
for the honour of having worked with the gentlemen of the Board on 
the problems that faced them at this Session. In other felicitous terms 
he also expressed his pleasure in having added to his circle of friends, 
men of ability, wisdom and experience. He considered that he could 
say with justifiable pride that 'we have been able to make a good job 
'Of the work entrusted to us'. 'We may not have achieved sensational 
results, but I do believe we have spot-lighted the dark corners where 
ignorance of wild life and its management existed, and I believe too 
that we have created an All-India interest in wild life 'and its vanishing 
assets and have succeeded in making our plea for wide public sympathy. 

4 



164 THE PRESERVATION OF WJLD^LJFE IN INDIA 

We have, if I may say so, packed a year's labour into a week's duration.' 
He wanted to dTaw the attention of the public, the great public of India, 
through the good offices of our fair-minded and efficient press to some 
pf the recommendations of the Board. He mentioned in particular 
the fact that it is the lion's head that adorns the Asoka pillar which is 
the motif of the Republic of India. It is but right, he declared, that 
everything humanly possible should be done to increase his numbers 
and give him special protection and consideration. 

It will be noticed, HiS Highness said, that provision has been 
hlade by the Board for creation of 'Abhayaranyas' or forests where 
animals can live without fear of man and so enable the fauna of the 
country to have an undisturbed place where they can propagate their 
species without interference from any human agency whatsoever. Along 
with this, he said, recommendations have been made for the formation 
of sanctuaries for medicinal plants and herbs of botanical value. 
'It is a step in the right direction, for it is now a recognized fact that 
plant life is an invaluable and indispensable link in the Nature protec* 
tion scheme of a country. Thirdly, he said, there is the interesting 
recommendation for Zoological Parks for nowhere in India is there 
such a park, which would seem to afford ideal conditions for pre* 
serving and nursing rare species of wild life in manner not possible in 
zoological gardens. In such parks the animals would live practically 
in their natural surroundings and the people would look at them from 
behind protecting fences. 'This proposal deserves earnest considera- 
tion at the hands of the public and the several governments.' 

Finally, he said, the Board have rightly suggested that they should 
be given a recognized place under the statute as an 'Institution of 
National Importance'. 'For the first time in India's history of recent 
times wide public interest has been aroused in the 'wild life' of the 
country. The deplorable state of ignorance, indifference and apathy 
on the part of our nation in respect of the country's magnificent flora 
and fauna is giving way to an intelligent and sympathetic appreciation 
of their vital place in the life of the land. This marks a splendid 
chapter in the history of Indian public opinion. May it be a har- 
binger of a new era of prosperity! " In the Union Minister, he con- 
cluded, we find a sincere supporter of this national cause which, so 
long neglected and relegated to the background, has now been taken 
up in earnest by the Government of India. 



APPENDIX « B " 

Resolutions Adopted by the Central Board for Wild Life at 
Its First Session Held in Mysore from the 25th November 
to the 1st December 1952 



1. The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends 
that its name be changed to " Indian Board for Wild Life ", 
so as to specify its precise territorial limits for international 
purpose. 

2. Whereas India's heritage ofwildlifeis fast becoming 
a vanishing asset in respect of some of the country's notable 
animals, such as, lion, rhinoceros, tragopan, cheetah, etc. 

Whereas the preservation of the fauna of India and the 
prevention of the extinction of any species is a matter of great 
national importance, and 

Whereas protection in balance with natural and human 
environment are also matters of urgent national importance, 

The Central Board for Wild Life 

Recommends to the Government of India that, despite the 
existence of entry 20 "Protection of Wild Animals and Birds" in 

List II (State List) 
(i) to devise ways and means for the 
conservation and control of wild life 
through co-ordinated legislative and prac- 
tical measures, with particular reference to 
seasonal and regional closures and decla- 
ration of certain species of animals as 
'protected' animals and prevention of 
indiscriminate killing; 

(ii) to sponsor the setting up of Na- 
tional Parks, Sanctuaries and Zoological 
Gardens; 

(iii) to promote public interest in wild 
life and the need for its preservation in 
harmony with natural and human environ- 
ment; 

(iv) to advise Government on policy in 
respect of export of living animals, tro- 
phies, skins, furs, feathers and other 
wild life products; 

(v) to prevent cruelty to birds and 
beasts caught alive with or without injury; 
and 

(vD to perform such other functions as 
are germane to the purpose for which the 
Board has been constituted. 



of the Seventh 
Schedule to the Con 
stitution of India, 
the Central Board 
for Wild Life, with ■ 
the marginally not- 
ed functions assign- 
ed to it under the 
Ministry of Food 
and Agriculture Re- 
solution F. 7-110| 
51-R. of the 4th 
April 1952, be de- 
clared by Parlia- 
ment by Law to be 
an institution of 
national importance 
as envisaged in 
Items 62 and 64 of 
List I — Union List 
—of the VII Sche. 
dule to the Con- 
stitution more speci- 
ally as the proper 
exercise of the func- 
tions of the Board 
will involve recourse to action under one or more of the fol- 
lowing entries in the Union and concurrent Legislative Lists: — 
List I — Item 5. — Arms, firearms, amunition and explosives. 
List I — Item 13. — Participation in the International Conferences 
Associations and other bodies and implementing of decisions 
made thereat, e.g., the International Union for the Pro- 
tection of Nature. 
List I — Item 41. — Trade and Commerce witn foreign countries; 
import and export across custom"! frontiers — in so far as 
Hying animals, trophies, skins, furs, feathers and. other 
wild life products are concerned. 
List I— Item 42. — Inter-State Trade and Commerce with respect 
to matters specified against the preceding entry (No. 41), 

J 



Name. 



Declaration of the 
Central Board for 
Wild Life as an 
Institution of 
National 
Importance, 



166 



THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 



Amendment of the 

Constitution of 

„^he Central Board 



-.1 



for Wild Life. 



Executive 
Committee. 



List I — Item 81 (Union List).— ]nler-State migration (of wild life). 

List III — Item 17 (Concurrent List). — Prevention of cruelty to 
animals. 

List III — Item 29 (Concurrent List). — Prevention of the extension 
from one State to another of infectious or contagious diseases 
or pests affecting men, animals or plants. 

List III — Item 33 (Concurrent List). — Trade and Commerce in 
and the production, supply and distribution of the products 
of industries where the control of such industries by the 
Union is declared by Parliament by law to be expedient 
in the public interest. 

[Sub-Section (2) of Article 246 enables Parliament to make laws 
with reference to any of the matters enumerated in List III.] 
3. Whereas the Constitution of the Central Board for Wild 

Life set up by the Government of India requires elaboration 

and amplification with a view to devising ways andjneans for 

the proper fulfilment .of its aims and objects, 

The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends 

(a) that each State Government should be requested to set 
up a State Wild Life Board consisting of representatives of various 
organisations and interests to deal with the day-to-day admin- 
istration of local Wild Life problems. 

Note. — The co-ordination of the activities of the State 
Boards will be effected through the Central Board 
for Wild Life. 

(b) that Honorary Regional Secretaries should be appointed 
as the Board's representatives to cover on its behalf the various 
regions in India. 

Note. — Appointments of Honorary Regional Secretaries will 
be made by the Government of India and duly 
notified in the Gazette of India. Each Regional 
Secretary will maintain liasion between the Central 
Board and the State Boards. It will be necessary 
to make provision for the travelling allowance of 
the Regional Secretaries for the journeys performed 
by them in their respective regions in the discharge 
of their duties assigned to them by the Board. 

(c) that Dr. S. L. Hora, Director, Zoological Survey of 
India and President, National Institute of Sciences, India, should 
be appointed as the Honorary Secretary-General of the Board. 

(d) that for the day-to-day administration, an Executive 
Committee consisting of the following be constituted: — 

The Non-Official Vice-Chairman (Chairman). 

The Regional Secretaries. 

The Secretary-General. 

The Secretary of the Central Board (Secretary). 

Note. — The Executive Committee will be vested by the 
Board with authority to function on its behalf 
in the disposal of day-to-day business. 

(e) that the Constitution of the Board should be so amended 
as to cover the above recommendations. 

4. Whereas it is necessary to provide the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Board with authority to carry on the day-to-day 
business of the Board and to take action on its behalf while the 
Board is not in session, 

The Central Board for Wild Life Resolves 

(a) that the Executive Committee is vested with full powers 
to take necessary action in pursuance of the objects of the Board 
to deal with the day-to-day business of the' Board and to address 
the Central Government and other authorities on various matters 
concerning the business of the Board; 

(b) that the Executive Committee will transact its business 
by circulation as far as possible, and will meet at least once in 
(> months; 

2 



167 



(c) that the Executive Committee will frame bye-laws for 
the disposal of its own business as well as the business of the 
Board subject to the ratification ofthe Board; 

(d) that the Proceedings of the Executive Committee shall 
be circulated to the Members of the Board in the form of period- 
ical Bulletins; 

(e) that in the event of a decision to be taken in respect 
of a State, the representative ofthe State concerned on the Board 
shall be co-opted; and 

(/) that the Executive Committee is authorised to make 
verbal alterations in the language ofthe Resolution to be pre- 
sented to Gpvernment. 

The Central Board for Wild Life Resolves 

5. That its grateful appreciation of the generous arrange- 
ments made for holding its Inaugural Session at Mysore should 
be conveyed to the Government of Mysore. 

Tn particular, the Board would like to convey its gratitude 
to His Highness the Rajpramukh for his unstinted hospitality 
and for the interest he has taken in the Proceedings ofthe Session. 

The Board also acknowledges with thanks the assistance 
rendered by the Chief Conservator of Forests, Mysore and his 
Staff in organizing visits to various institutions and making 
arrangements for the delegates. 

6. Whereas the preservation of Nature in its unspoiled 
state is deemed essential for its educative and esthetic value; 

Whereas wild life in India is progressively diminishing, 
Whereas some of the wild animals have already become 
extinct or are on the verge of extinction, 

And Whereas the maintenance of an equilibrium between 
the vegetable kingdom and the animal kingdom and among 
the animals themselves is of importance to mankind, 

The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends that 
the Attention of the State Governments should be 
Drawn to the Need for : — 

(a) the creation of National Parks in conformity with the 
general objectives laid down by the International Union for 
the Protection of Nature and affiliated bodies, 

provided that should a State create a National Park, the 
advice of the Central Board for Wild Life will be taken to ensure 
its national character. 

Note.— The term 'National Park' for this purpose would 
generally denote an area dedicated by statute for 
all time, to conserve the scenery and natural and 
historical objects of national significance, to con- 
serve wild life therein and to provide for the 
enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such 
means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoy- 
ment of future generations, with such modifica- 
tions as local conditions may demand. 
(Z>) the creation of Wild Life Sanctuaries (or Wild Life 
Refuges) of such size and in such numbers which the needs for 
the preservation of wild life, more particularly of the species 
which have become scarce or which are threatened with extinc- 
tion, may demand. 

Note. — 1. The expression 'Wild Life Sanctuary' shall 
denote an area constituted by the competent author- 
ity in which killing, hunting, shooting or capturing 
of any species of bird or animal is prohibited except 
by or under the control of the highest authority 
in the department responsible for the management 
of the Sanctuary. The boundaries and charac- 
ter of such a sanctuary will be kept sacrosanct 
as far as possible. Such sanctuaries should be 
made accessible to visitors. 



Thanks to 
Mysore 
Government. 



Protection of 
Nature and Wild 
Life. 



168 THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

2. While the management of sanctuaries 
does not involve suspension or restriction of normal 
forest operations, it would be generally desirable 
to set apart an area of 1 to about 25 square miles 
within a sanctuary where such operations may 
not be carried out, to ensure the nursing up of 
wild life undisturbed by human activities. Such 
sacrosanct areas may be declared as ' Abhayaranyd" , 
i.e., a forest where animals could roam about 
without fear of man. Such a sanctuary within a 
sanctuary would also ensure the preservation cf 
plant life unspoiled and undisturbed^ 

3. In the management of sanctuaries, con- 
trol should be exercised over elements adverse to 
the maintenance of wild life, including destruction 

' of vermin and predators. In the case of any diffi- 
culty, expert advice may be obtained from the 
Central Board for Wild Life. 

4. In the event of a sanctuary being located 
in one State contiguous to a sanctuary in another 
State, the desirable co-ordination may be affected 
through the Central Board for Wild Life. 

(c) imposing restrictions on the issue of shooting permits and 
by the prohibition of shooting in State Forests of a particular 
species for such periods as may be deemed necessary in order to 
attain the objectives in regard to the preservation of wild life. 

Note. — Special 'preservation plots' may be constituted 
where plants of medicinal value or species of 
special botanical interest may need to be preserved 
along with or without wild life. 

(d) encouraging members of the public interested in wild 
life to assist in the preservation of wild life by appointing them 
as Honorary Wild Life Officers who will perform the duties and 
enjoy the powers and privileges of Forest Officers in respect of 
preservation of wild life delegated to them. 

Note.— All the Members of the Central and the State Wild 
Life Boards as well as Honorary Wild Life Officers 
should be issued with a badge of office and an 
identity card in consultation with the Central 
Board for Wild Life. 

(e) the setting up of Zoological Parks for the purpose of 
entertainment, recreation and study of animal life. 

Note. — 1. These parks should provide ideal conditions for 
rescuing and multiplying any species on the verge 
of extinction. 

2. A Zoological Park is different from a 
zoological garden, inasmuch as it provides space 
and secures conditions similar to those in the 
natural habitats for the housing of animals, which 
are not possible in zoological gardens. 
(/) modelling the administration of zoological gardens 
of the various States along the lines of Alipore Zoo, Calcutta. 
Note. — The maintenance of Zoos at a high standard of 
efficiency is desirable, and advice in this respect 
may be obtained from the Honorary Secretary- 
General of the Central Board for Wild Life, 
(g) declaring the follow'ng species as protected animals: — 
(i) Indian Lion. (viii) Musk Deer, 

(ii) Snow Leopard. (ix) Brow-an tiered Deer, 

(iii) Clouded Leopard. (x) Pigmy Hog. 

(iv) Cheetah. (xi) Great Indian Bustard, 

(v) Rhinoceros (all species), (xii) Pink-headed Duck, 
(vi) The Indian Wild Ass. (xiii) White-winged Wood 
(vii) Kashmir Stag. Duck. 

Note. — This list is illustrative and not exhaustive and may 
have to be added to from time to time to suit local 



169 



conditions. Legislation should be enacted where 
necessary to secure complete protection of these 
animals and birds which are on the verge of extinc- 
tion. 
7. Whereas the Indian lion, which not long ago was distri- 
buted throughout North- West India, 

Whereas the Indian lion has now receded to the confines 
of Gir Forest in Kathiawar Peninsula, and whereas the Indian 
lion is an animal of national importance requiring rigorous 
protection, 

The Central Board for Wild Life 

Views with gTeat alarm the dangers attendant upon con- 
centrating the remnant lions in a single locality and not immune 
from epidemic and other unforeseen calamities; 

Recommends that an additional locality as a Sanctuary 
for the lions in a suitable area should be developed. In the 
selection 'of this locality, the original range and environment of 
the lion shall be taken into consideration. 

And Requests that the attention of the Government of 
Saurashtra should be invited to the need for associating the 
Central Board for Wild Life in the management of the lions of 
the Gir Forest. 

8. Whereas unrestricted trading in trophies, skins, furs, 
feathers and flesh is detrimental to the wild life resources of the 
country, 

The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends 

(a) that the export of trophies, as defined in the Bombay ■ 
Protection of Wild Animals and Wild Birds Act 1951 (XXIV 
of 1951) should be prohibited except in cases which are 
covered by a Certificate of Ownership issued by the prescribed 
authority of the Central or State Governments such as Forest 
or Revenue Officers, etc., or whose ownership is otherwise estab- 
lished. 

Note. — This provision will not apply to the re-export of 
trophies sent to India for finishing on the pro- 
duction of a certificate of the owner. 

(6) that legislative control of internal trade in trophies 
should, for the present, await the experience to be gained in the 
Bombay State where legislation in this respect is being brought 
into force shortly. 

(c) that, in the meanwhile, in order to discourage trading 
in trophies inside the country and to prohibit (a) the netting 
of birds and animals during 'close' periods, (b) their sale, (c) the 
sale of venison, (d) the sale of fish and parts of other wild ani- 
mals, the Government of India should invite the attention of the 
State Governments to the advisability of enforcing the provi- 
sions of Act VIII of 1912, as amended from time to time, or 
such other legislation as might have been enacted or extended 
for the purpose. 

9. Whereas in the interests of wild life, and for humane 
reasons, it is necessary to prevent cruelty to animals and birds 
during captivity and transit, 

The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends 

that the co-operation of the Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals (S.P.C.A.) should be sought in this connec- 
tion and that Honorary Wild Life Officers in every centre be 
requested to report all cases of cruelty to animals and birds in 
captivity and during transit. 

10. Whereas extensive netting of wild animals and birds is 
prejudicial to the maintenance of the balance of Nature and is 
detrimental to the wild life of the country, 

5 



Protection of the 
Lion, 



Trading In Trophies, 
Sjkins, Furs, 
Feathers and 
Flesh. 



\ 

Prevention of 
Cruelty to 
Animals. 



Netting of Wild 
Birds and Animals. 



170 - 



THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE IN INDIA 



j£xport and Import 
of Living Animals 
. and Birds. 



'Close' Season. 



Statistics. 



Symposiums. 



The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends 

that the Retting of wild animals and birds should be stopped 
during 'close' seasons and that no exemptions should be per- 
mitted on grounds of tribal or caste customs, livelihood, pro- 
fession or usage. 

11. Whereas the unrestricted export of living animals and 
birds tends to deplete the fauna of the country, 

And Whereas the unrestricted import of animals and birds 
is not in the interests of local fauna, 

The Central Board for Wild Lite Recommends 

(n) that the Chief Controller of Imports and Exports be 
requested to fix the annual limits for the export of each valuable 
species of wild life to zoos, scientific institutions and circuses 
outside India on the recommendation of the Secretary-General 
of the Board, 

(b) that all requests for imports of living specimens of wild 
life by zoos, scientific institutions and circuses in India should 
be routed through the Honorary Secretary-General of the Board, 

(c) that the excise duty to be levied on the export of animals 
for circuses should be double the duty levied on animals intended 
for bona fide zoos and scientific institutions, 

- provided that gifts and exchanges between bona fide zoos 
be exempt from such duties. 

{d) that the State Governments be requested to give priority 
to the requirements of zoos in India in respect of species of wild 
life over the requirements of foreign zoos, 

provided that the restrictions contemplated in the aforesaid 

clauses shall not apply to exports of species classified as ' vermin'. 

Ngte. — The phrase 'vermin' is defined in the Bombay Wild 

, • Animals and Wild Birds Protection Act (XXIV of 

1951) as "any animal or bird specified in Schedule I 

. _,..; w and includes any animal or bird declared to be 

I vermin under Section 18". 

12. Whereas, owing to lack of uniformity in the periods 
prescribed by different State Governments as 'close' seasons, 
it is difficult for the Transport Authorities to keep a check on 
'close' season offences, 

The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends 

that movements of living birds be prohibited from 1st April 
to 30th September which, for all practical purposes, will be 
treated as 'close' season for purposes of transport. 

Note. — This restriction will not apply to -movements for 
bona fide purposes, e.g., exchange of specimens 
by zoos and transport of birds- by circuses, etc. 
'- 13. Whereas it is essential For the Central Board to main- 
tain- statistics of species of wild life, 

The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends 

that all State Governments be requested to furnish informa- 
tion on the following points to its Secretary-General: — 

(a) surplus species held by their zoos for disposal, 
lb) species required by their zoos, and 
(c) animals that can be captured in their forests. 
14. Whereas it is necessary to focus attention on problems 
of educating the public on the value of wild life, 

And Whereas Zoos and National Parks are institutions for 
such education, 

The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends 

that symposiums should be held at an early date on the 
needs and requirements of 
{a) Indian Zoos, and 



1-71 



(b) management- of- -National Parks and Sanctuaries 
so as to assist in the formulation of policies in regard to g the 
maintenance of Wild Life exhibits in the Zoos and the manage- 
ment- of National Parks and Sanctuaries. , _ 

15, Whereas it is necessary to secure public co-operation 
in the enforcement of measures for the protection of wild life, 

The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends 

' (a) that members of the public interested in Nature should 
be invited to become Honorary Correspondents to the Board in 
matters relating to wild life; and 

(6) that Members of the Board should, be appointed as 
Honorary Wild Life Officers on behalf of the Board in respect 
of the Resolutions and Recommendations passed and such instruc- 
tions as may be issued from time to time by the Board. 

16. Whereas it is necessary to preserve wild life in the 
country as a whole, - - - - - 

Whereas the existing machinery for the protection of Wild 
Life in areas outside the purview of the Indian Fcrest Act XVI 
of 1927 or adaptations thereof, is inadequate, and 

Whereas the protection '. afforded to wild life in areas 
within the purview of the Indian Forests Act XV] of 1927, or 
adaptations thereof, requires strengthening, 

The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends - - 

(a) that necessary legislation be enacted at an early date 
by the Centre or the States as the case may be. 

Note. — The attention of State Governments is invited to 
the existing legislation for the. protection of wild 
life in various States and, in particular, to the 
'Bombay Wild Birds and Wild Animals Protec- 
tion Act No. XXIV of 1951' and the Rules 
framed thereunder. 

17. Whereas there is reason to believe that there is need 
for the amendment of existing 'close' seasons observed in res- 
pect of birds and animals, 

Whereas the list of animals and birds now treated as vermin 
needs re-examination with a view to limiting it to only those 
animals and birds which should be kept in check, 

Whereas in some parts of the country there is wholesale 
destruction of wild life with the help of dogs-, 

Whereas shooting from vehicles, with op without blinding 
spot or head-lights, shooting, with torches, shooting over'salt- 
licks and water holes, destroying animals by using poisons, 
explosives and poisoned weapons^catching animals, and hire's 
by nets, traps, pits, snares, etc., and-killing animals-by* driving 
them in snow or by fire require to be discouraged in the interests 
of the preservation of Wild Life, — 

And Whereas the use of buck-shot wounds -rather than 
kills animals, . ' --„. 

The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends 

(«) that States do review;, in consultation with the Central 
Board for Wild Life, and^ if possible with their contigvoi s 
States, their 'close' seasons for the various animals and birds 
to be protected, 

(b) that States should re-examine their ljsts of 'vermin' 
from time to time to ensure that only harmful species are so 
classified, and 

(c) that the attention of State Governments be invited to 
the urgent need for devising ways and means and/of* adopting 
such measures, including enactment of legislation, to discourage 
if not to prohibit, these practices in the interests of wild life. 

18. Whereas indiscriminate slaughter of wild life is often 
indulged in with the aid of guns ostensibly held for crop'pro- 
tecfiot), " " ~" 



Co-operation of 
Public in Enforce- 
ment of Measures 
for the Protection 
of Wild Life. 






Wild Life 
Legislation. 



'Close' Seasons, 
Illicit Shooting, etc. 



Crop Protection 
• Guns. 



172 



the Preservation of wild life in india 



Buffer Belts 
Around Sanctuaries, 



Inoculation against 
Cattle-borne 
Diseases. 



Publicity, 



Education. 



Liaisoo, 



The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends 

•(a) that ways and means be devised to ensure that guns 
issued for crop protection are used only for the protection of 
standing crops and that the use of such guns for hunting or 
shooting should be prohibited unless the licensee secures' such 
other licences as are prescribed, 

(b) that the quantity and type of ammunition available to 
the holders of such guns should be restricted by the licensing 
authorities to such as is required for protection of crops only. 

Note, — Licences should be generally issued for single- 
barrel guns only. 

19. Whereas much destruction of wild life goes on in 
areas contiguous to Sanctuaries, and 

Whereas cattle-borne diseases are spread in such sanc- 
tuaries by domestic cattle from surrounding areas, 

The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends 

that buffer belts of sufficient width be declared around all 
sanctuaries within which no shooting, other than required for 
legitimate crop protection, will be permitted and within which 
no professional graziers will be allowed to establish their cattle- 
pens. 

20. Whereas many preventable cattle-borne diseases 
among herbivorous wild animals result from contact with infec- 
ted domestic cattle in the neighbourhood of "forests", 

The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends 

that State Governments be requested to inoculate syste- 
matically and periodically domestic cattle in the neighbour- 
hood of National Parks, Sanctuaries and Reserves where and 
when necessary. 

21. Whereas insufficient use is being made at present 
of the existing facilities of publicity afforded by the Press, Screen 
and Radio, for wild life protection, 

The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends 

(a) that adequate publicity material be issued from time 
to time by the respective Central and State Publicity Depart- 
ments in close collaboration with Forest Departments and 
other organisations, 

(b) that enthusiasts be approached to give publicity to wild 
life, 

(c) that documentary films dealing with various aspects of 
wild life be produced by Governments in consultation with the 
Central or State Boards for Wild Life for exhibition in both 
urban and rural areas, 

{d) that amateur cinema-photography of wild life be en- 
couraged, and 

(e) that the All-India Radio be requested to afford sperial 
facilities for wild life broadcasts. 

22. Whereas there is general lack of knowledge regard- 
ing conservation of nature and the value of wild life, and 

Whereas it is essential to educate public opinion in matters 
of wild life, 

The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends 

that special steps be taken to popularise wild life by intro- 
ducing stories in school text-books, by producing attractive 
charts, by organising special lectures and through the establish- 
ment of Zoos and Zoological Parks in the neighbourhood of 
large cities. 

23. Whereas for the purposes of education and publciity 
co-ordination of such Departments as Forest, Agriculture, 

8 



APPENDIX "b" 173 



horticulture, Scientific Research, Transportation (Tourist), and 
Information and Broadcasting is essential, 

The Central Board for Wild Life Recommends 

., that steps be taken through the Central and State Wild Life 
Boards to co-ordinate the activities of all connected Depart- 
ments in rriatters of management, publicity and education (Con- 
cerning wild life. 



1Q93.B2 Printed at The Bangalore Press, Bangalore City, by Q.Srinivasa Rao, Superintsadont 



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Elimination of the natural 
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them. See "Carnivora". 



1093.1! Printed at Thf Bialalon Fna. Bania.'oro CitYc by O.Srinivasa BWi Superintondsnt